Abstract

We investigated the spectral and spatial properties of the supercontinuum emission of single filaments in air in the infrared (1.5 µm - 5.3 µm). The infrared emission of the filament was controlled by modulating the spatial phase of the femtosecond driver pulse with a deformable mirror. Filaments with a characteristic spiral emission pattern in the infrared were generated for a variety of different wavefront profiles of the femtosecond pulse. The properties of this novel class of emission were analyzed more closely. Further understanding of the corresponding emission dynamics of the filament will help to refine current models of filament propagation.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 73–75 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 304–306 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23(5), 382–384 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 62–65 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(1), 466–493 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Propagation and Filamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Optical Media,” Laser Phys. 15, 4 (2005).
  7. V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39(3), 205–228 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the super continuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1397–1399 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, V. Ross, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Ultrabroadband conical emission generated from the ultraviolet up to the far-infrared during the optical filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2515–2517 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Circular phase mask for control and stabilization of single optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2326–2328 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175178 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13077–13095 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2602–2604 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(17), 1332–1334 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 025003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Three-Dimensional Spiraling of Interacting Spatial Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(13), 2551 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Induced Coherence and Stable Soliton Spiraling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 81 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39(3), 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Induced Coherence and Stable Soliton Spiraling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 81 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

Abel, M. J.

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Propagation and Filamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Optical Media,” Laser Phys. 15, 4 (2005).

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

Arévalo, E.

Averchi, A.

Baumert, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

Braun, A.

Brixner, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Buryak, A. V.

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Induced Coherence and Stable Soliton Spiraling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 81 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L.

Couairon, A.

Curley, P. F.

Di Trapani, P.

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

Dubois, J.

Eyring, S.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

Ferland, B.

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Franco, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

Gerber, G.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gravel, J.-F.

Grillon, G.

Hensley, C. J.

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A.

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hui, P.

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ilkov, F. A.

Ishaaya, A. A.

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39(3), 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(17), 1332–1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Induced Coherence and Stable Soliton Spiraling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 81 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39(3), 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(17), 1332–1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2602–2604 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lohbreier, J.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, P.

Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Mondelain, D.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Neumark, D. M.

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Niedermeier, S.

Panov, N. A.

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

Piskarskas, A.

Polesana, P.

Prade, B.

Prade, B. S.

Rodriguez, M.

Ross, V.

Salamo, G.

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Three-Dimensional Spiraling of Interacting Spatial Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(13), 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Sauerbrey, R.

Schrauth, S. E.

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Induced Coherence and Stable Soliton Spiraling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 81 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Three-Dimensional Spiraling of Interacting Spatial Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(13), 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seyfried, V.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Induced Coherence and Stable Soliton Spiraling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 81 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Three-Dimensional Spiraling of Interacting Spatial Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(13), 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shim, B.

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shlenov, S. A.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39(3), 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spitzenpfeil, R.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Strehle, M.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tamosauskas, G.

Théberge, F.

Tzortzakis, S.

Vuong, L. T.

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walter, D.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

Wolf, J.-P.

Wöste, L.

Wright, E. M.

Xi, T.-T.

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Zhang, J.

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Propagation and Filamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Optical Media,” Laser Phys. 15, 4 (2005).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (9)

F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, V. Ross, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Ultrabroadband conical emission generated from the ultraviolet up to the far-infrared during the optical filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2515–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 73–75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(17), 1332–1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23(5), 382–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 62–65 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the super continuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2602–2604 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Circular phase mask for control and stabilization of single optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, C. J. Hensley, L. T. Vuong, P. Hui, A. A. Ishaaya, and A. L. Gaeta, “Controlled interactions of femtosecond light filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 061803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Three-Dimensional Spiraling of Interacting Spatial Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(13), 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Induced Coherence and Stable Soliton Spiraling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 81 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39(3), 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Setup for adaptive optimization of the infrared emission of filaments

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Snapshots of the intensity distribution of emitted spiral patterns in the infrared (1.5 - 1.8 µm). The central bright spot in the middle of the spirals is caused by the filament hitting the target screen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Further snapshots of IR emissions (1.5 - 1.8 µm): (a) A short spiral emission connected to the filament core. (b) A short spiral emission with enclosing ring structure. (c) A typical CE corresponding to the measurement of (b). (d) Emission composed of two spiral-like patterns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Burn paper patterns taken at different positions alongside the filament: (a) Pattern obtained in front of an iris aperture. (b)-(h) Pattern obtained after the filament passes the aperture (open diameter ca. 1 mm). The distance between neighboring measurements along the propagation axis is about 8 cm. The main filament splits into two filaments that travel very close to each other. (f) The two filaments merge for a short time before their intensity drops sharply in (g) and (h).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a),(c) The spiral emission is partly blocked by a thin wire mounted near the filament core. The corresponding position of the wire is visualized in (b) and (d). The resulting intensity pattern indicates that the inner section of the spiral is emitted at a later time compared to the outer section.

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