Abstract

We present a silicon avalanche photodetector (APD) fabricated with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology without any process modification or special substrates. The CMOS-APD is based on N+/P-well junction, and its current-voltage characteristics, responsivity, avalanche gain, and photodetection frequency response are measured. Gain-bandwidth product over 1 THz is achieved with the CMOS-APD having avalanche gain of 569 and 3-dB photodetection bandwidth of 3.2 GHz.

© 2010 OSA

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  13. K. Iiyama, H. Takamatsu, and T. Maruyama, “Hole-injection-type and electron-injection-type silicon avalanche photodiodes fabricated by standard 0.18-μm CMOS process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 932–934 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
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2010 (2)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Iiyama, H. Takamatsu, and T. Maruyama, “Hole-injection-type and electron-injection-type silicon avalanche photodiodes fabricated by standard 0.18-μm CMOS process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “Bandwidth enhancement in Si photodiode by eliminating slow diffusion photocarriers,” IEE Electron. Lett. 44(1), 52–53 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H.-S. Kang, M.-J. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “A high-speed and high-responsivity photodiode in standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 197–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

A. Liu and M. Paniccia, “Advances in silicon photonic devices for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” Physica E 35(2), 223–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkai, A.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-W.

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.-Y.

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Kang, M.-J. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Hsin, Y.-M.

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “Bandwidth enhancement in Si photodiode by eliminating slow diffusion photocarriers,” IEE Electron. Lett. 44(1), 52–53 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “A high-speed and high-responsivity photodiode in standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 197–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-K.

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “Bandwidth enhancement in Si photodiode by eliminating slow diffusion photocarriers,” IEE Electron. Lett. 44(1), 52–53 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “A high-speed and high-responsivity photodiode in standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 197–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iiyama, K.

K. Iiyama, H. Takamatsu, and T. Maruyama, “Hole-injection-type and electron-injection-type silicon avalanche photodiodes fabricated by standard 0.18-μm CMOS process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kang, H.-S.

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Kang, M.-J. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koehl, S.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-J.

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Kang, M.-J. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Litski, S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu and M. Paniccia, “Advances in silicon photonic devices for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” Physica E 35(2), 223–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-D.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-C.

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “Bandwidth enhancement in Si photodiode by eliminating slow diffusion photocarriers,” IEE Electron. Lett. 44(1), 52–53 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “A high-speed and high-responsivity photodiode in standard CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 197–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

K. Iiyama, H. Takamatsu, and T. Maruyama, “Hole-injection-type and electron-injection-type silicon avalanche photodiodes fabricated by standard 0.18-μm CMOS process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. T.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu and M. Paniccia, “Advances in silicon photonic devices for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” Physica E 35(2), 223–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pauchard, A.

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takamatsu, H.

K. Iiyama, H. Takamatsu, and T. Maruyama, “Hole-injection-type and electron-injection-type silicon avalanche photodiodes fabricated by standard 0.18-μm CMOS process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H.-S. Kang, M.-J. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, and Y.-M. Hsin, “Bandwidth enhancement in Si photodiode by eliminating slow diffusion photocarriers,” IEE Electron. Lett. 44(1), 52–53 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

M.-J. Lee, H.-S. Kang, and W.-Y. Choi, “Equivalent circuit model for Si avalanche photodetectors fabricated in standard CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1115–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of CMOS-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional structures of the fabricated CMOS-APD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current-voltage characteristics of the CMOS-APD under illumination and dark conditions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Responsivity and avalanche gain of the CMOS-APD as a function of the reverse bias voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photodetection frequency responses of the CMOS-APD at different bias voltages.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gain-bandwidth characteristic of the CMOS-APD.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance comparison of silicon avalanche photodetectors fabricated with standard CMOS technology

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