Abstract

This paper, for the first time, investigates the nonlinear degradation of 40 Gbaud single- and dual polarization RZ-DQPSK/D8PSK signals caused by SPM and XPM-induced crosstalk from neighboring 10 Gbit/s NRZ-OOK channels in an WDM upgrade scenario. The investigations were numerically and experimentally conducted over a 320 km transmission link with three different wavelength configurations to address the impact of the walk-off length. The paper also presents the first numerical analysis of the XPM dependence on the relative state of polarization of the D8PSK with respect to the neighbors.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Govind, Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995), Chap. 7.
  3. M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference. paper JThA44 (2007)
  4. X. Liu, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Suppression of XPM Penalty on 40-Gb/s DQPSK Resulting from 10-Gb/s OOK Channels by Dispersion Management,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OMQ6 (2008)
  5. M. S. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, T. Wuth, M. Kuschnerov, B. Lankl, C. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK Transmission over 1140 km of SSMF with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ-OOK neighbours,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, paper Mo.4.E.2 (2008)
  6. E. Tipsuwannakul, M. Sköld, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, “Transmission of 240 Gb/s PM-RZ-D8PSK over 320 km in 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK WDM System,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OMJ2 (2010)
  7. C. Kim and G. Li, “Direct-detection optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying (OD8PSK) for spectrally efficient transmission,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3415–3421 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-15-3415 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Wernz, S. Bayer, B. E. Olsson, M. Camera, H. Griesser, and C. Fürst, “112Gb/s PolMux RZ-DQPSK with Fast Polarization Tracking Based on Interference Control,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OTuN4 (2009)
  9. R. F. Pawula, S. O. Rice, and J. H. Roberts, “Distribution of the Phase Angle Between Two Vectors Perturbed by Gaussian Noise,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 1828–1841 (1982)
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “OSNR Margin Assessment for Optical Transmissions in the Nonlinear Regime with Forward Error Correction,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper ThN2 (2003)
  11. M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, G. Charlet, M. Salsi, M. Bertolini, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, and S. Bigo, “On the Required Number of WDM Channels When Assessing Performance of 100Gb/s Coherent PDM-QPSK Overlaying Legacy Systems,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, paper 3.4.5 (2009)
  13. M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, “Effects of Nonlinearities on PMD-Induced System Impairments,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4127–4137 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Rafique, M. Forzati, and J. Mårtensson, “Impact of Nonlinear Fibre Impairments in 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK Transmission with 43 Gb/s and 10.7 Gb/s Neighbours,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper We.D1.6. (2010)
  15. O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of Polarization Dependent Loss and Cross-Phase Modulation on Polarization Multiplexed DQPSK Signals”, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference. paper OThU6 (2008).

2006 (1)

P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eiselt, M.

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R. J.

P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, “Effects of Nonlinearities on PMD-Induced System Impairments,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4127–4137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Li, G.

Pawula, R. F.

R. F. Pawula, S. O. Rice, and J. H. Roberts, “Distribution of the Phase Angle Between Two Vectors Perturbed by Gaussian Noise,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 1828–1841 (1982)
[CrossRef]

Rice, S. O.

R. F. Pawula, S. O. Rice, and J. H. Roberts, “Distribution of the Phase Angle Between Two Vectors Perturbed by Gaussian Noise,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 1828–1841 (1982)
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. H.

R. F. Pawula, S. O. Rice, and J. H. Roberts, “Distribution of the Phase Angle Between Two Vectors Perturbed by Gaussian Noise,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 1828–1841 (1982)
[CrossRef]

Shtaif, M.

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, “Effects of Nonlinearities on PMD-Induced System Impairments,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4127–4137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, “Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 979–981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

P. Govind, Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995), Chap. 7.

M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference. paper JThA44 (2007)

X. Liu, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Suppression of XPM Penalty on 40-Gb/s DQPSK Resulting from 10-Gb/s OOK Channels by Dispersion Management,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OMQ6 (2008)

M. S. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, T. Wuth, M. Kuschnerov, B. Lankl, C. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK Transmission over 1140 km of SSMF with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ-OOK neighbours,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, paper Mo.4.E.2 (2008)

E. Tipsuwannakul, M. Sköld, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, “Transmission of 240 Gb/s PM-RZ-D8PSK over 320 km in 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK WDM System,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OMJ2 (2010)

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, G. Charlet, M. Salsi, M. Bertolini, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, and S. Bigo, “On the Required Number of WDM Channels When Assessing Performance of 100Gb/s Coherent PDM-QPSK Overlaying Legacy Systems,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, paper 3.4.5 (2009)

M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, “Effects of Nonlinearities on PMD-Induced System Impairments,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4127–4137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Rafique, M. Forzati, and J. Mårtensson, “Impact of Nonlinear Fibre Impairments in 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK Transmission with 43 Gb/s and 10.7 Gb/s Neighbours,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper We.D1.6. (2010)

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of Polarization Dependent Loss and Cross-Phase Modulation on Polarization Multiplexed DQPSK Signals”, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference. paper OThU6 (2008).

H. Wernz, S. Bayer, B. E. Olsson, M. Camera, H. Griesser, and C. Fürst, “112Gb/s PolMux RZ-DQPSK with Fast Polarization Tracking Based on Interference Control,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OTuN4 (2009)

R. F. Pawula, S. O. Rice, and J. H. Roberts, “Distribution of the Phase Angle Between Two Vectors Perturbed by Gaussian Noise,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 1828–1841 (1982)
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “OSNR Margin Assessment for Optical Transmissions in the Nonlinear Regime with Forward Error Correction,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper ThN2 (2003)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An overview of the investigated system. OSA denotes an optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The DP-RZ-D8PSK transmitter implemented in both numerical and experimental setups.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical (left) and experimental (right) constellations of 40 Gbaud SP-RZ-DQPSK and SP-RZ-D8PSK signals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The 320 km transmission link block diagram.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The D8PSK receiver block diagram.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Numerical (a) and experimental (b) back-to-back performance of 40 Gbaud SP- and DP-RZ-DQPSK/D8PSK signals as a function of OSNR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The transmitted signal spectra of 40 Gbaud DP-RZ-D8PSK signal in (a) a single wavelength system, 100 GHz-spaced WDM systems with (b) 200 GHz, and (c) 100 GHz separation to the nearest channels obtained from the numerical (left column) and experimental (right column) setups.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) numerical and (b) experimental signal OSNR required for BER = 10−3 of the four modulation formats as a function of launch power per channel per polarization over 320 km in three different scenarios: the single wavelength system (squares), 100 GHz-spaced WDM systems with 200 GHz (circles), and 100 GHz (diamonds) to the nearest channels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Nonlinear Threshold of the four modulation formats in three different scenarios: the single wavelength system (squares), 100 GHz-spaced WDM systems with 200 GHz (circles), and 100 GHz (diamonds) to the nearest channels from both simulation (filled) and experiment (open).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Required OSNR for BER = 10−3 versus launch power per channel per polarization for a DP DQPSK channel co-propagating with four NRZ-OOK channels with 200 GHz between the central channel and the closest neighbors, with different SOP.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

SOP of DP-DQPSK signal as measured in the middle of each symbol slot (red dots), after transmission at different launch powers, when the SOP of the NRZ OOK neighboring channels is LHP (a), + 45° (b); in (c) the signal shown in (b) passed through a wave plate; the blue dots are the vector sum of the Stokes vectors of all the wavelength channels at the transmitter.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Optimal rotation angles versus total launch power per channel per polarization.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

OSNR penalty of DP-RZ-D8PSK for BER = 10−3 as a function of launch power, in which the nearest neighbors are a) 100 GHz and b) 200 GHz away.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Back-to-back OSNR required for BER = 10−3 of 40 Gbaud SP- and DP-RZ-DQPSK/D8PSK signals

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