Abstract

We demonstrate a hyperspectral and depth sensitive diffuse optical imaging microsystem, where fast scanning is provided by a CMOS compatible 2-axis MEMS mirror. By using lissajous scanning patterns, large field-of-view (FOV) of 1.2cm x 1.2cm images with lateral resolution of 100µm can be taken at 1.3 frames-per-second (fps). Hyperspectral and depth-sensitive images were acquired on tissue simulating phantom samples containing quantum dots (QDs) patterned at various depths in Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Device performance delivers 6 nm spectral resolution and 0.43 wavelengths per second acquisition speed. A sample of porcine epithelium with subcutaneously placed QDs was also imaged. Images of the biological sample were processed by spectral unmixing in order to qualitatively separate chromophores in the final images and demonstrate spectral performance of the imaging system.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Rajaram, T. J. Aramil, K. Lee, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and validation of a clinical instrument for spectral diagnosis of cutaneous malignancy,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 142–152 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, D. Madoff, and X. Zhang, Handheld Single-Cell-Layer Optical Sectioning Reflectance Confocal Microscope for Interventional Imaging, p 1¨C5. (format).
  6. G. K. Fedder, R. T. Howe, T.-J. K. Liu, and E. P. Quevy, “Technologies for Cofabricating MEMS and Electronics,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 306–322 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. Yuan, and E. M. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. J. Aramil, K. Lee, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and validation of a clinical instrument for spectral diagnosis of cutaneous malignancy,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 142–152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. Yuan, and E. M. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Fedder, R. T. Howe, T.-J. K. Liu, and E. P. Quevy, “Technologies for Cofabricating MEMS and Electronics,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 306–322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aramil, T. J.

Aranda, I.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avritscher, R.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchard, M. B.

Burgess, S. A.

Condit, J.

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fedder, G. K.

G. K. Fedder, R. T. Howe, T.-J. K. Liu, and E. P. Quevy, “Technologies for Cofabricating MEMS and Electronics,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 306–322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halpern, A. C.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M.

Hoshino, K.

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. T.

G. K. Fedder, R. T. Howe, T.-J. K. Liu, and E. P. Quevy, “Technologies for Cofabricating MEMS and Electronics,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 306–322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, N.

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, K.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lane, N.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Li, Y.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.-J. K.

G. K. Fedder, R. T. Howe, T.-J. K. Liu, and E. P. Quevy, “Technologies for Cofabricating MEMS and Electronics,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 306–322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Madoff, D. C.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McElroy, A.

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T.

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nehal, K. S.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. H.

Patel, Y. G.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quevy, E. P.

G. K. Fedder, R. T. Howe, T.-J. K. Liu, and E. P. Quevy, “Technologies for Cofabricating MEMS and Electronics,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 306–322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajaram, N.

Reichenberg, J. S.

Tunnell, J. W.

Uhr, J. W.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T. K.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, B.

Zhang, X.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Kumar, J. Condit, A. McElroy, N. Kemp, K. Hoshino, T. Milner, and X. Zhang, “Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

G. K. Fedder, R. T. Howe, T.-J. K. Liu, and E. P. Quevy, “Technologies for Cofabricating MEMS and Electronics,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 306–322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, D. Madoff, and X. Zhang, Handheld Single-Cell-Layer Optical Sectioning Reflectance Confocal Microscope for Interventional Imaging, p 1¨C5. (format).

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