Abstract

Previously demonstrated high-order silicon ring filters typically have bandwidths larger than 100 GHz. Here we demonstrate 1-2 GHz-bandwidth filters with very high extinction ratios (~50 dB). The silicon waveguides employed to construct these filters have propagation losses of ~0.5 dB/cm. Each ring of a filter is thermally controlled by metal heaters situated on the top of the ring. With a power dissipation of ~72 mW, the ring resonance can be tuned by one free spectral range, resulting in wavelength-tunable optical filters. Both second-order and fifth-order ring resonators are presented, which can find ready application in microwave/radio frequency signal processing.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. RF photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links, ed. W.S.C. Chang, (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  2. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. T. Reed, Silicon photonics, the state of the art (John Wiley and Sons, 2008).
  4. T. K. Woodward, T. C. Banwell, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, and R. Menendez, “Signal processing in analog optical links,” Avionics, Fiber Optics, and Photonics Conference (AVFOP2009IEEE), pp. 17–18.
  5. M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, D. M. Gill, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of a tunable microwave-photonic notch filter using low-loss silicon ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 2105–2110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Toliver, R. C. Menendez, T. C. Banwell, A. Agarwal, T. K. Woodward, N. N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, A programmable optical filter unit cell element for high resolution RF signal processing in silicon photonics (OFC 2010 IEEE), paper OWJ4.
  7. C. K. Madsen, and J. H. Zhao, Optical filter design and analysis, a signal processing approach (Wiley 1999).
  8. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2207–2218 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. K. S. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Transmission and group delay of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 456–458 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “A highly compact third-order silicon microring add-drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14765–14771 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. H. Tao, J. Song, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, 50th order series-coupled micro-ring resonator (IPGC 2008 IEEE), pp. 1 – 3.
  14. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041122–041124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Popovic, Theory and design of high-index-contrast microphotonic circuits, PhD thesis, (MIT 2008).
  16. P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, N.-N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14474–14479 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low power and compact reconfigurable multiplexing devices based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9852–9858 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2007

2006

2004

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Barwicz, T.

Beals, M.

Beattie, J.

Capmany, J.

Carothers, D.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

DeRose, G. A.

Dong, P.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Gill, D.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

Ho, P.-T.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Johnson, F. G.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. H.

Kimerling, L. C.

King, O.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

O’Boyle, M.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041122–041124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

Pastor, D.

Patel, S. S.

Pomerene, A.

Poon, J. K. S.

Popovic, M. A.

Qi, M.

Qian, W.

Rakich, P. T.

Rasras, M. S.

Seiferth, F.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041122–041124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shen, H.

Smith, H. I.

Trakalo, M.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

Van, V.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041122–041124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

White, A. E.

Wilson, R. A.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041122–041124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Yariv, A.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) based on silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041122–041124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

S. H. Tao, J. Song, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, 50th order series-coupled micro-ring resonator (IPGC 2008 IEEE), pp. 1 – 3.

M. Popovic, Theory and design of high-index-contrast microphotonic circuits, PhD thesis, (MIT 2008).

RF photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links, ed. W.S.C. Chang, (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

G. T. Reed, Silicon photonics, the state of the art (John Wiley and Sons, 2008).

T. K. Woodward, T. C. Banwell, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, and R. Menendez, “Signal processing in analog optical links,” Avionics, Fiber Optics, and Photonics Conference (AVFOP2009IEEE), pp. 17–18.

P. Toliver, R. C. Menendez, T. C. Banwell, A. Agarwal, T. K. Woodward, N. N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, A programmable optical filter unit cell element for high resolution RF signal processing in silicon photonics (OFC 2010 IEEE), paper OWJ4.

C. K. Madsen, and J. H. Zhao, Optical filter design and analysis, a signal processing approach (Wiley 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical images of fully fabricated 2nd-order (a) and 5th-order ring filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Insertion loss spectra for waveguides with different lengths. (b) Waveguide propagation loss spectrum obtained from linear fitting between insertion losses and waveguide lengths. (c) Average waveguide loss in C-band for ten different chips.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectra at the drop port with heater off and on. (b) Resonance shifts for both rings as a function of heating power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra for the 2nd-orer ring filter (a) and 5th-order ring filter (b) after optimizing the heating power. The transmission is normalized to the maximum power of through ports. Insets: enlarged drop-port spectra at the resonance peaks.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized drop-port transmission spectra for the 2nd-orer and 5th-order ring filters. The frequency is normalized to the filter’s own 3dB bandwidth and the transmission is normalized to the maximum power of the drop port itself.

Metrics