Abstract

We report a 12.5 Gb/s physical random number generator (RNG) that uses high-speed threshold detection of the spectrally-sliced incoherent light produced by a fiber amplifier. The system generates a large-amplitude, easily measured, fluctuating signal with bandwidth that is constrained only by the optical filter and electrical detector used. The underlying physical process (spontaneous emission) is inherently quantum mechanical in origin, and therefore cannot be described deterministically. Unlike competing optical RNG approaches that require photon counting electronics, chaotic laser cavities, or state-of-the-art analog-to-digital converters, the system employs only commonly available telecommunications-grade fiber optic components and can be scaled to higher speeds or multiplexed into parallel channels. The quality of the resulting random bitstream is verified using industry-standard statistical tests.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, W. Tang, Y. Liu, and W. Wei, “Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81, 051137 (2010).

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, Y.-M. Chi, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “High-speed quantum random number generation by measuring phase noise of a single-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 312–314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 5512–5524 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5512.
[CrossRef]

A. Argyris, S. Deligiannidis, E. Pikasis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Implementation of 140 Gb/s true random bit generator based on a chaotic photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 18, 18763–18768 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-18-18763.
[CrossRef]

2009

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Xu, Y. Wong, T. Horiuchi, and P. Abshire, “Compact floating-gate true random number generator,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1346–1347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Stojanovski, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part I: analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 281–288 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Stojanovski, J. Pihl, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part II: practical realization,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 382–385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Petrie, and J. Connelly, “A noise-based IC random number generator for applications in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 47, 615–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Leeson, “Performance analysis of direct detection spectrally sliced receivers using Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17, 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. J. Keating, and D. D. Sampson, “Reduction of excess intensity noise in spectrum-sliced incoherent light for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 53–61 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J.-S. Lee, “Signal-to-noise ratio of spectrum-sliced incoherent light sources including optical modulation effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2197–2201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. M. Ferrenberg, D. P. Landau, and Y. J. Wong, “Monte Carlo simulations: hidden errors from ‘good’ random number generators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3382–3384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. C. Steele, G. R. Walker, and N. G. Walker, “Sensitivity of optically preamplified receivers with optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 545–547 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizõglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

G. Bernstein, and M. Lieberman, “Secure random number generation using chaotic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 37, 1157–1164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1071–1082 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1956

M. Isida, and H. Ikeda, “Random number generator,” Ann. Inst. Stat. Math. 8, 119–126 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, P.

P. Xu, Y. Wong, T. Horiuchi, and P. Abshire, “Compact floating-gate true random number generator,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1346–1347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Achleitner, U.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acín, A.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aida, H.

Amano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, U. L.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Argyris, A.

Aviad, Y.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Azizõglu, M.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizõglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, G.

G. Bernstein, and M. Lieberman, “Secure random number generation using chaotic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 37, 1157–1164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

Bucci, M.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.-M.

Cohen, E.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, J.

C. Petrie, and J. Connelly, “A noise-based IC random number generator for applications in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 47, 615–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, J. A.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 5512–5524 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5512.
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de la Giroday, A. B.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deligiannidis, S.

Dong, R.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dowlatabadi, A. B.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrenberg, A. M.

A. M. Ferrenberg, D. P. Landau, and Y. J. Wong, “Monte Carlo simulations: hidden errors from ‘good’ random number generators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3382–3384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, C.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Germani, L.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

H. Guo, W. Tang, Y. Liu, and W. Wei, “Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81, 051137 (2010).

Harayama, T.

Hayes, D.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, K.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 5512–5524 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5512.
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holman, W. T.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horiuchi, T.

P. Xu, Y. Wong, T. Horiuchi, and P. Abshire, “Compact floating-gate true random number generator,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1346–1347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Humblet, P. A.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizõglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, H.

M. Isida, and H. Ikeda, “Random number generator,” Ann. Inst. Stat. Math. 8, 119–126 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Isida, M.

M. Isida, and H. Ikeda, “Random number generator,” Ann. Inst. Stat. Math. 8, 119–126 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanter, I.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keating, A. J.

A. J. Keating, and D. D. Sampson, “Reduction of excess intensity noise in spectrum-sliced incoherent light for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 53–61 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kocarev, L.

T. Stojanovski, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part I: analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 281–288 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Stojanovski, J. Pihl, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part II: practical realization,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 382–385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurashige, T.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Landau, D. P.

A. M. Ferrenberg, D. P. Landau, and Y. J. Wong, “Monte Carlo simulations: hidden errors from ‘good’ random number generators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3382–3384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-S.

J.-S. Lee, “Signal-to-noise ratio of spectrum-sliced incoherent light sources including optical modulation effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2197–2201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leeson, M. S.

Leuchs, G.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, M.

G. Bernstein, and M. Lieberman, “Secure random number generation using chaotic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 37, 1157–1164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

H. Guo, W. Tang, Y. Liu, and W. Wei, “Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81, 051137 (2010).

Lo, H.-K.

Luo, L.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luzzi, R.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manning, T. A.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, C.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Massar, S.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsukevich, D. N.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mauerer, W.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maunz, P.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morikatsu, S.

Naito, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, H.

Olmschenk, S.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1071–1082 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oowada, I.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrie, C.

C. Petrie, and J. Connelly, “A noise-based IC random number generator for applications in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 47, 615–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pihl, J.

T. Stojanovski, J. Pihl, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part II: practical realization,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 382–385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pikasis, E.

Pironio, S.

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

Qian, L.

Reidler, I.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluh, M.

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

A. J. Keating, and D. D. Sampson, “Reduction of excess intensity noise in spectrum-sliced incoherent light for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 53–61 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiki, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Someya, H.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steele, R. C.

R. C. Steele, G. R. Walker, and N. G. Walker, “Sensitivity of optically preamplified receivers with optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 545–547 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovski, T.

T. Stojanovski, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part I: analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 281–288 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Stojanovski, J. Pihl, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part II: practical realization,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 382–385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sych, D.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

Tang, W.

H. Guo, W. Tang, Y. Liu, and W. Wei, “Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81, 051137 (2010).

Trifiletti, A.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, A.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 5512–5524 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5512.
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varanonuovo, M.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17, 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. R.

R. C. Steele, G. R. Walker, and N. G. Walker, “Sensitivity of optically preamplified receivers with optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 545–547 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walker, N. G.

R. C. Steele, G. R. Walker, and N. G. Walker, “Sensitivity of optically preamplified receivers with optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 545–547 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

H. Guo, W. Tang, Y. Liu, and W. Wei, “Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81, 051137 (2010).

Weihs, G.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, C.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, Y.

P. Xu, Y. Wong, T. Horiuchi, and P. Abshire, “Compact floating-gate true random number generator,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1346–1347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, Y. J.

A. M. Ferrenberg, D. P. Landau, and Y. J. Wong, “Monte Carlo simulations: hidden errors from ‘good’ random number generators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3382–3384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xu, P.

P. Xu, Y. Wong, T. Horiuchi, and P. Abshire, “Compact floating-gate true random number generator,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1346–1347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

Yoshimori, S.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 5512–5524 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5512.
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

K. Hirano, T. Yamazaki, S. Morikatsu, H. Okumura, H. Aida, A. Uchida, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, T. Harayama, and P. Davis, “Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 5512–5524 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5512.
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675–1680 (2000).
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Ann. Inst. Stat. Math.

M. Isida, and H. Ikeda, “Random number generator,” Ann. Inst. Stat. Math. 8, 119–126 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. Xu, Y. Wong, T. Horiuchi, and P. Abshire, “Compact floating-gate true random number generator,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1346–1347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17, 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. C. Steele, G. R. Walker, and N. G. Walker, “Sensitivity of optically preamplified receivers with optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 545–547 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst.

G. Bernstein, and M. Lieberman, “Secure random number generation using chaotic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 37, 1157–1164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl.

T. Stojanovski, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part I: analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 281–288 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Stojanovski, J. Pihl, and L. Kocarev, “Chaos-based random number generators – Part II: practical realization,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 48, 382–385 (2001).
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W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, “An integrated analog/digital random noise source,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521–528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Petrie, and J. Connelly, “A noise-based IC random number generator for applications in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 47, 615–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanonuovo, “A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizõglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Keating, and D. D. Sampson, “Reduction of excess intensity noise in spectrum-sliced incoherent light for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 53–61 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Lee, “Signal-to-noise ratio of spectrum-sliced incoherent light sources including optical modulation effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2197–2201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Leeson, “Performance analysis of direct detection spectrally sliced receivers using Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1071–1082 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, and M. Rosenbluh, “An optical ultrafast random bit generator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 58–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Pironio, A. Acín, S. Massar, A. B. de la Giroday, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, D. Hayes, L. Luo, T. A. Manning, and C. Monroe, “Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem,” Nature 464, 1021–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

H. Guo, W. Tang, Y. Liu, and W. Wei, “Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81, 051137 (2010).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ferrenberg, D. P. Landau, and Y. J. Wong, “Monte Carlo simulations: hidden errors from ‘good’ random number generators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3382–3384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Jun, and P. Kocher, “The Intel Random Number Generator,” Cryptography Research Inc., white paper prepared for Inter Corp. (1999).

L. C. Noll, and S. Cooper, “What is LavaRnd?” Online: http://www.lavarnd.org/.

J. Walker, “HotBits: Genuine random numbers, generated by radioactive decay,” Online: http://www.fourmilab.ch/hotbits/.

M. Haahr, “Random.org: True Random Number Service,” Online: http://www.random.org/.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985). p. 246.

D. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms (3rd ed.) (Addison-Wesley, 1996). pp. 64–65.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, A Statistical Test Suite for Random and Pseudorandom Number Generators for Cryptographic Applications (NIST Special Publication 800–22, Revision 1a), National Institute of Standards and Technology (2010).

G. Marsaglia, “DIEHARD: A battery of tests of randomness,” Online: http://www.stat.fsu.edu/pub/diehard/ (1996).

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