Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel method to enhance the visibility of an optical interferometer when measuring low reflective materials. Because of scattering from a rough surface or its own low reflectivity, the visibility of the obtained interference signal is seriously deteriorated. By amplifying the weak light coming from the sample based on an injection-locking technique, the visibility can be enhanced. As a feasibility test, even with a sample having a reflectivity of 0.6%, we obtained almost the same visibility as a metal coated mirror. The suggested visibility enhanced interferometer can be widely used for measuring low reflective materials.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. V. M. Khavinson, “Ring interferometer for two-sided measurement of the absolute lengths of end standards,” Appl. Opt. 38(1), 126–135 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and C.-S. Kang, “Absolute length calibration of gauge blocks using optical comb of a femtosecond pulse laser,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5968–5974 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Jin, J. W. Kim, C.-S. Kang, J.-A. Kim, and T. B. Eom, “Thickness and refractive index measurement of a silicon wafer based on an optical comb,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18339–18346 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. “Methods for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers: 1. Basic concepts,” International Standard ISO 16063–1 (1998).
  5. “Methods for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers: II. Primary vibration calibration by laser interferometry,” International Standard ISO 16063–11 (1999).
  6. Y.-B. Lee, H. C. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Determination of the sensitivity phase of an accelerometer based on an analysis of the harmonic components of the interference signal,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(4), 045204 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. R. Hadley, “Injection locking of diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 419–426 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 976–983 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. H. M. van Tartwijk and D. Lenstra, “Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7(2), 87–143 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Zhang, R. Dou, and J. Chen, “Characteristics of the injection-locked master-slave lasers,” Appl. Opt. 47(14), 2648–2654 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Jin, H.-G. Rhee, and S.-W. Kim, “Metrological atomic force microscopy integrated with a modified two-point diffraction interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(10), 105302 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Ohtsubo, Semiconductor Lasers: Stability, Instability and Chaos (Springer, 2008) 2nd edition, pp. 32–33.
  14. Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 990–992 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

J. Jin, H.-G. Rhee, and S.-W. Kim, “Metrological atomic force microscopy integrated with a modified two-point diffraction interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(10), 105302 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y.-B. Lee, H. C. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Determination of the sensitivity phase of an accelerometer based on an analysis of the harmonic components of the interference signal,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(4), 045204 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, R. Dou, and J. Chen, “Characteristics of the injection-locked master-slave lasers,” Appl. Opt. 47(14), 2648–2654 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 990–992 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

G. H. M. van Tartwijk and D. Lenstra, “Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7(2), 87–143 (1995).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

G. R. Hadley, “Injection locking of diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 419–426 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 976–983 (1982).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Donati, S.

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 990–992 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dou, R.

Eom, T. B.

Giuliani, G.

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 990–992 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hadley, G. R.

G. R. Hadley, “Injection locking of diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 419–426 (1986).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, G.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[Crossref]

Jin, J.

Kang, C.-S.

Khavinson, V. M.

Kim, H. C.

Y.-B. Lee, H. C. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Determination of the sensitivity phase of an accelerometer based on an analysis of the harmonic components of the interference signal,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(4), 045204 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, J.-A.

Kim, S.-W.

J. Jin, H.-G. Rhee, and S.-W. Kim, “Metrological atomic force microscopy integrated with a modified two-point diffraction interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(10), 105302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y.-B. Lee, H. C. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Determination of the sensitivity phase of an accelerometer based on an analysis of the harmonic components of the interference signal,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(4), 045204 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and C.-S. Kang, “Absolute length calibration of gauge blocks using optical comb of a femtosecond pulse laser,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5968–5974 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y.-J.

Lang, R.

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 976–983 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-B.

Y.-B. Lee, H. C. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Determination of the sensitivity phase of an accelerometer based on an analysis of the harmonic components of the interference signal,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(4), 045204 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lenstra, D.

G. H. M. van Tartwijk and D. Lenstra, “Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7(2), 87–143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mogensen, F.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[Crossref]

Olesen, H.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[Crossref]

Rhee, H.-G.

J. Jin, H.-G. Rhee, and S.-W. Kim, “Metrological atomic force microscopy integrated with a modified two-point diffraction interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(10), 105302 (2009).
[Crossref]

van Tartwijk, G. H. M.

G. H. M. van Tartwijk and D. Lenstra, “Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7(2), 87–143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 990–992 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

G. R. Hadley, “Injection locking of diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 419–426 (1986).
[Crossref]

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 976–983 (1982).
[Crossref]

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 990–992 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

Y.-B. Lee, H. C. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Determination of the sensitivity phase of an accelerometer based on an analysis of the harmonic components of the interference signal,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(4), 045204 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, H.-G. Rhee, and S.-W. Kim, “Metrological atomic force microscopy integrated with a modified two-point diffraction interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(10), 105302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. (1)

G. H. M. van Tartwijk and D. Lenstra, “Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7(2), 87–143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

“Methods for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers: 1. Basic concepts,” International Standard ISO 16063–1 (1998).

“Methods for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers: II. Primary vibration calibration by laser interferometry,” International Standard ISO 16063–11 (1999).

J. Ohtsubo, Semiconductor Lasers: Stability, Instability and Chaos (Springer, 2008) 2nd edition, pp. 32–33.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of VEI (DFB laser: distributed feedback laser, CL: collimation lens, M: mirror, C: circulator, PD: photo detector, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, ND filter: neutral density filter).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrums of the master laser, the slave laser, and the injection-locked light. The intensity of the spectrum of the master laser was adjusted for easy comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interference signals obtained by VEI and a normal interferometer; (a) VEI without the ND filter (V=0.65), (b) VEI with the ND filter (V=0.65), (c) The normal interferometer without the ND filter (V=0.69), (d) The normal interferometer with the ND filter (V=0.06). Figures (a) and (c) were measured with two metal coated mirrors, and figures (b) and (d) were measured with the ND filter having a transmittance of 0.08. For clear recognition, the two-dimensional figures were generated numerically from the obtained interference signal profiles.

Equations (4)

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V = 2 I r I s I r + I s .
Δ φ = sin 1 ( Δ ν/ Δ ν L ) tan 1 α,
δΔφ = γ δI/Δν L ,
δΔφ = γ δI/Δν L 1 cos ( Δν/Δν L ) .

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