Abstract

We implemented fast Gaussian gridding (FGG)-based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) on the graphics processing unit (GPU) architecture for ultrahigh-speed, real-time Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). The Vandermonde matrix-based non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (NUDFT) as well as the linear/cubic interpolation with fast Fourier transform (InFFT) methods are also implemented on GPU to compare their performance in terms of image quality and processing speed. The GPU accelerated InFFT/NUDFT/NUFFT methods are applied to process both the standard half-range FD-OCT and complex full-range FD-OCT (C-FD-OCT). GPU-NUFFT provides an accurate approximation to GPU-NUDFT in terms of image quality, but offers >10 times higher processing speed. Compared with the GPU-InFFT methods, GPU-NUFFT has improved sensitivity roll-off, higher local signal-to-noise ratio and immunity to side-lobe artifacts caused by the interpolation error. Using a high speed CMOS line-scan camera, we demonstrated the real-time processing and display of GPU-NUFFT-based C-FD-OCT at a camera-limited rate of 122 k line/s (1024 pixel/A-scan).

© 2010 OSA

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2010

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, ““Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Subhash, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-high speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography for volumetric imaging at 140,000 A scans per second,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 75540K (2010).

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vergnole, D. Lévesque, and G. Lamouche, “Experimental validation of an optimized signal processing method to handle non-linearity in swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10446–10461 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-10-10446 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11772–11784 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-11-11772 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-14-14685 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, S. Maeno, K. Aoshima, H. Hasegawa, and H. Koseki, “Real-time processing for full-range Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with zero-filling interpolation using multiple graphic processing units,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), 4756–4762 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-6-4842 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, D. L. Wilson, and A. M. Rollins, “High temporal resolution OCT using image-based retrospective gating,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10786–10799 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-13-10786 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Z. Ding, T. Wu, C. Wang, J. Meng, M. Chen, and L. Xu, “Development of a non-uniform discrete Fourier transform based high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12121–12131 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-14-12121 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-17-14880 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, T. Xie, and Z. Chen, “Real-time polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography data processing with parallel computing,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6365–6370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, G. Huttmann, and P. Koch, “Using nonequispaced fast Fourier transformation to process optical coherence tomography signals,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720R (2009).

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods 176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2005

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 799–805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Greengard and J. Lee, “Accelerating the nonuniform fast Fourier transform,” SIAM Rev. 46(3), 443–454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

H. M. Subhash, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-high speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography for volumetric imaging at 140,000 A scans per second,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 75540K (2010).

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, G.

Aoshima, K.

Baumann, B.

Belabas, N.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bouma, B. E.

W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradu, A.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Chen, M.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, A. E.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Z.

Dorrer, C.

Dufour, M. L.

Efimov, I. R.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Endo, T.

Ferguson, R. D.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, N. M.

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 799–805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gargesha, M.

Gehlbach, P.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, ““Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

Greengard, L.

L. Greengard and J. Lee, “Accelerating the nonuniform fast Fourier transform,” SIAM Rev. 46(3), 443–454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grulkowski, I.

Hammer, D. X.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.-H.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, ““Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

Hillmann, D.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, G. Huttmann, and P. Koch, “Using nonequispaced fast Fourier transformation to process optical coherence tomography signals,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720R (2009).

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hu, Z.

Huber, R.

Huttmann, G.

D. Hillmann, G. Huttmann, and P. Koch, “Using nonequispaced fast Fourier transformation to process optical coherence tomography signals,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720R (2009).

Hüttmann, G.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itagaki, T.

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Jafri, M. S.

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods 176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, M. W.

Jiang, J.

Joffre, M.

Kaluzny, B. J.

Kang, J. U.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, ““Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11772–11784 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-11-11772 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 799–805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karnowski, K.

Klein, T.

Koch, P.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, G. Huttmann, and P. Koch, “Using nonequispaced fast Fourier transformation to process optical coherence tomography signals,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720R (2009).

Koseki, H.

Kowalczyk, A.

Lamouche, G.

Lankenau, E.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
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L. Greengard and J. Lee, “Accelerating the nonuniform fast Fourier transform,” SIAM Rev. 46(3), 443–454 (2004).
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Likforman, J.

Liu, G.

Liu, X.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, ““Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Low, A. F.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
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Maeno, S.

Makita, S.

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Meng, J.

Nikolski, V. P.

Oelckers, S.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
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Oh, W.-Y.

Palte, G.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A. G.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
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Potsaid, B.

Probst, J.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rothenberg, F.

Roy, D.

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, U.

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 799–805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

Song, C. G.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, ““Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Subhash, H. M.

H. M. Subhash, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-high speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography for volumetric imaging at 140,000 A scans per second,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 75540K (2010).

Suter, M. J.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
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Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tang, C. M.

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods 176(2), 85–95 (2009).
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Tang, R.

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods 176(2), 85–95 (2009).
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Tearney, G. J.

W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
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A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
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Ustun, T. E.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
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Vakoc, B. J.

W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
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A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vergnole, S.

Wang, C.

Wang, K.

Wang, R. K.

H. M. Subhash, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-high speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography for volumetric imaging at 140,000 A scans per second,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 75540K (2010).

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007).
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K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, Y.

Wieser, W.

Wilson, D. L.

Winter, C.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, T.

Xie, T.

Xu, L.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yu, L.

Yun, S. H.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
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Zhang, K.

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11772–11784 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-11-11772 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, ““Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 799–805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
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Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods 176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. P. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(2), 736–748 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-736 .
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B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13375 .
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S. Vergnole, D. Lévesque, and G. Lamouche, “Experimental validation of an optimized signal processing method to handle non-linearity in swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10446–10461 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-10-10446 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11772–11784 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-11-11772 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-14-14685 .
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C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8916 .
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M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, “Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12313–12333 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-16-12313 .
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B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-19-15149 .
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I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-6-4842 .
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M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, D. L. Wilson, and A. M. Rollins, “High temporal resolution OCT using image-based retrospective gating,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10786–10799 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-13-10786 .
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K. Wang, Z. Ding, T. Wu, C. Wang, J. Meng, M. Chen, and L. Xu, “Development of a non-uniform discrete Fourier transform based high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12121–12131 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-14-12121 .
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-17-14880 .
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Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

H. M. Subhash, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-high speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography for volumetric imaging at 140,000 A scans per second,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 75540K (2010).

D. Hillmann, G. Huttmann, and P. Koch, “Using nonequispaced fast Fourier transformation to process optical coherence tomography signals,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720R (2009).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SIAM Rev.

L. Greengard and J. Lee, “Accelerating the nonuniform fast Fourier transform,” SIAM Rev. 46(3), 443–454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

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