Abstract

We have used coherent X-ray diffraction experiments to characterize both the 1-D and 2-D foci produced by nanofocusing Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors, and we find agreement. Algorithms related to ptychography were used to obtain a 3-D reconstruction of a focused hard X-ray beam waist, using data measured when the mirrors were not optimally aligned. Considerable astigmatism was evident in the reconstructed complex wavefield. Comparing the reconstructed wavefield for a single mirror with a geometrical projection of the wavefront errors expected from optical metrology data allowed us to diagnose a 40 μrad misalignment in the incident angle of the first mirror, which had occurred during the experiment. Good agreement between the reconstructed wavefront obtained from the X-ray data and off-line metrology data obtained with visible light demonstrates the usefulness of the technique as a metrology and alignment tool for nanofocusing X-ray optics.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent X-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, G. E. Ice, and J. Z. Tischler, “Profile coating and its application for Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 42(12), 3622–3628 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Manufactured by Dectris Ltd.: Neuenhoferstrasse 107, CH-5400 Baden, Switzerland. Model: PILATUS 2M.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, A. R. Sandy, S. Narayanan, and J. R. Fienup, “One-dimensional hard X-ray field retrieval using a moveable structure,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18374–18382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

G. R. Brady, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and J. R. Fienup, “Optical wavefront measurement using phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(2), 624–639 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent X-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7264–7278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

C. M. Kewish, L. Assoufid, A. T. Macrander, and J. Qian, “Wave-optical simulation of hard-X-ray nanofocusing by precisely figured elliptical mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 2010–2021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Elser, I. Rankenburg, and P. Thibault, “Searching with iterated maps,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(2), 418–423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, L. Assoufid, and J. Qian, “Comparison of two methods for simulation of hard X-ray nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 138–141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assoufid, L.

C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, L. Assoufid, and J. Qian, “Comparison of two methods for simulation of hard X-ray nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 138–141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, L. Assoufid, A. T. Macrander, and J. Qian, “Wave-optical simulation of hard-X-ray nanofocusing by precisely figured elliptical mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 2010–2021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, G. E. Ice, and J. Z. Tischler, “Profile coating and its application for Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 42(12), 3622–3628 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergamaschi, A.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brady, G. R.

Broennimann, Ch.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conley, R.

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, G. E. Ice, and J. Z. Tischler, “Profile coating and its application for Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 42(12), 3622–3628 (2003).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz, A.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dierolf, M.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinapoli, R.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikenberry, E. F.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
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Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
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V. Elser, I. Rankenburg, and P. Thibault, “Searching with iterated maps,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(2), 418–423 (2007).
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V. Elser, “Phase retrieval by iterated projections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 40–55 (2003).
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Evans-Lutterodt, K.

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C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldkamp, J. M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Giewekemeyer, K.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
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Gorelick, S.

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
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Gulden, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horisberger, R.

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huelsen, G.

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ice, G. E.

C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, G. E. Ice, and J. Z. Tischler, “Profile coating and its application for Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 42(12), 3622–3628 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Isakovic, A. F.

Ishikawa, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, I.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H.-C.

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, L. Assoufid, and J. Qian, “Comparison of two methods for simulation of hard X-ray nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 138–141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, L. Assoufid, A. T. Macrander, and J. Qian, “Wave-optical simulation of hard-X-ray nanofocusing by precisely figured elliptical mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 2010–2021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, P.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubo, H.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Küchler, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurapova, O.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, G. E. Ice, and J. Z. Tischler, “Profile coating and its application for Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 42(12), 3622–3628 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macrander, A. T.

C. M. Kewish, L. Assoufid, A. T. Macrander, and J. Qian, “Wave-optical simulation of hard-X-ray nanofocusing by precisely figured elliptical mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 2010–2021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, L. Assoufid, and J. Qian, “Comparison of two methods for simulation of hard X-ray nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 138–141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, G. E. Ice, and J. Z. Tischler, “Profile coating and its application for Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 42(12), 3622–3628 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancuso, A. P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maser, J.

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuyama, S.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, A.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mimura, H.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mozzanica, A.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narayanan, S.

Nishino, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, D.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patommel, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Robinson, F. Pfeiffer, I. A. Vartanyants, Y. Sun, and Y. Xia, “Enhancement of coherent X-ray diffraction from nanocrystals by introduction of X-ray optics,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2329–2334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, E.

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, J.

C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, L. Assoufid, and J. Qian, “Comparison of two methods for simulation of hard X-ray nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 138–141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, L. Assoufid, A. T. Macrander, and J. Qian, “Wave-optical simulation of hard-X-ray nanofocusing by precisely figured elliptical mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 2010–2021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quiney, H. M.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rankenburg, I.

V. Elser, I. Rankenburg, and P. Thibault, “Searching with iterated maps,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(2), 418–423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riekel, C.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. K.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Robinson, F. Pfeiffer, I. A. Vartanyants, Y. Sun, and Y. Xia, “Enhancement of coherent X-ray diffraction from nanocrystals by introduction of X-ray optics,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2329–2334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, A.

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salditt, T.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandy, A. R.

Sano, Y.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlepütz, C. M.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, B.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schöder, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulze-Briese, C.

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souvorov, A.

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

Stephan, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, G. B.

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Suzuki, M.

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tamasaku, K.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibault, P.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Elser, I. Rankenburg, and P. Thibault, “Searching with iterated maps,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(2), 418–423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tischler, J. Z.

C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, G. E. Ice, and J. Z. Tischler, “Profile coating and its application for Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 42(12), 3622–3628 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomizaki, T.

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyokawa, H.

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsutsumi, R.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van der Hart, A.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, J. F.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vartanyants, I.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vartanyants, I. A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Robinson, F. Pfeiffer, I. A. Vartanyants, Y. Sun, and Y. Xia, “Enhancement of coherent X-ray diffraction from nanocrystals by introduction of X-ray optics,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2329–2334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vila-Comamala, J.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincze, L.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, A.

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, J. B.

Weckert, E.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, T.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, R. N.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Willmott, P. R.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

Yabashi, M.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, K.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-X-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6927–6932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yumoto, H.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive X-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard X-rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, H. Mimura, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Feasibility study of high-resolution coherent diffraction microscopy using synchrotron X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (3)

Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, and A. Wagner, “The PILATUS 1M detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(Pt 2), 120–130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 3), 368–375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, and A. Saito, “Deterministic retrieval of surface waviness by means of topography with coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(Pt 4), 223–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, L. Assoufid, and J. Qian, “Comparison of two methods for simulation of hard X-ray nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 138–141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, G. E. Ice, and J. Z. Tischler, “Profile coating and its application for Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 42(12), 3622–3628 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an X-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H.-C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

V. Elser, I. Rankenburg, and P. Thibault, “Searching with iterated maps,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(2), 418–423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard X-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (3)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Manufactured by Dectris Ltd.: Neuenhoferstrasse 107, CH-5400 Baden, Switzerland. Model: PILATUS 2M.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experiment geometry for characterization of a nanobeam produced by K-B mirrors. The X-ray beam is incident from the right, and is focused by a K-B mirror pair (M1, M2) onto the sample (S). The sample is a nanofabricated Au test pattern, which can be translated in the plane perpendicular to the beam. The diffracted beam is incident on a detector (D), located several meters downstream. The horizontally focusing mirror M2 was removed for some of the measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstruction of a linear focus from mirror M1. (a) Example of the diffraction pattern of the linear test object, in which the gaps between detector modules are indicated with white arrows; (b) scanning electron micrograph of the test object, annotated to show the dimensions of the sample in micrometers; (c) Vertical beam waist obtained by 1-D phase retrieval.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray nanobeam focused by mirrors M1 and M2. (a) Ptychograph of the wavefield intensity at the sample plane, (x, y, 0 mm); (b) the vertical focus is 83 nm-fwhm, located at (x, y, −0.48 mm); (c) the horizontal focus is 232 nm-fwhm, and located at (x, y, −1.72 mm); (d) beam intensity integrated along the x-direction, showing the vertical beam waist in the yz plane; (e) intensity integrated along the y-direction showing the horizontal beam waist in the xz plane. The red arrow indicates the 1.24 mm separation of the foci. Images (a-c) have the same spatial and intensity scales, as indicated, and the relative position along the optical axis is indicated in the upper right-hand corner of each image. These positions are marked on the orthogonal views (d) and (e) with a dashed line for the sample, a solid line for the vertical focus and a dotted line for the horizontal focus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of phase-retrieval results with metrology data. (a) Amplitude of the wavefield in the exit pupil plane at z = -s 2 relative to the focal plane; (b) the wavefront aberration from phase-retrieval is overlaid with the phase error calculated from visible light metrology data, including a misalignment of 40 µrad; (c) Comparison of the retrieved focus intensity with the simulated intensity: The focal spot widths are 95 nm and 86.4 nm in fwhm, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Best-fit ellipse parameters for the profile coated K-B mirror pair, where Δh represents the rms departure from the best-fit ellipse, w is the simulated fwhm of the focus, and d is the simulated depth-of-focus.

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