Abstract

InGaN-based light-emitting solar cell (LESC) structure with an inverted pyramidal structure at GaN/sapphire interface was fabricated through a laser decomposition process and a wet crystallographic etching process. The highest light output power of the laser-treated LESC structure, with a 56% backside roughened-area ratio, had a 75% enhancement compared to the conventional device at a 20 mA operating current. By increasing the backside roughened area, the cutoff wavelength of the transmittance spectra and the wavelength of the peak photovoltaic efficiency had a redshift phenomenon that could be caused by increasing the light absorption at InGaN active layer.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. M. Pryce, D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocurrent in GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676– H678 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Pryce, D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocurrent in GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676– H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

I. M. Pryce, D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocurrent in GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676– H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. T.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. S.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. H.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, A.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M. T.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, S. C.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dahal, R.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. J.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

I. M. Pryce, D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocurrent in GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, N.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, J. H.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-H.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. P.

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. C.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, R. H.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676– H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676– H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

I. M. Pryce, D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocurrent in GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, K. Y.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.-L.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W. C.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W. Y.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B. W.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. M.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. J.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. S.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. M.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. T.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C. J.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pantha, B.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676– H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pryce, I. M.

I. M. Pryce, D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocurrent in GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Redwing, J. M.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676– H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, D. A.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toledo, N. G.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. L.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tu, P. M.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, N. G.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. W.

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. H.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. S.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, U. Z.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zan, H. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Pryce, D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocurrent in GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, L. W. Wu, Y. K. Su, Y. P. Hsu, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, and C. T. Lee, “Nitride-based LEDs with 800°C grown p-AlInGaN–GaN double-cap layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1447–1449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676– H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic diagram of the RB-LESC structure with an inverted pyramidal structure at GaN/sapphire interface is shown here. (b)(c) The laser scanning striped-line patterns and the inverted pyramidal structure were observed on the cross-sectional SEM micrographs of the RB-LESC structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The light-intensity profiles of (a) the RB60-LESC structure, (b) the RB50-LESC structure, (c) the RB40-LESC structure, and (d) the RB30-LESC structure at a 20mA operation current are measured by a beam profiler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The EL spectra of the LESC structure were measured at 20 mA. (b) The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and the light-output power as a function of the operating current are measured. (c) The relativity external quantum efficiency of the LESC structures were measured by varying the pulsed injection current. (d) The transmittance spectra of the LESC structures were measured.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the LESC devices measured. (b) The external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of the photovoltaic characteristic were measured as a function of the wavelength of the illuminated light source. (c) The peak EQE value and the short-circuit current density of the LESC structures were measured as a function of the backside roughened-area ratio. (d) The short-circuit current density were measured as a function of the wavelength of the illuminated light source.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The experimental data including the cutoff wavelength, the wavelength of the peak EQE values, and the wavelength of peak Jsc values of all the LESC devices

Metrics