Abstract

The third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses were investigated utilizing the Z-scan and femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE) methods at the wavelength of 800nm, respectively. The compositional dependences were analyzed and the influencing factors including the linear refractive index, the concentration of lone electron pairs, the optical bandgap and the amount of weak covalent/ homopolar bonds were discussed. A glass, i.e. 76GeS2·19Sb2S3·5CdS, with large nonlinear refrative index (n 2 = 5.63 × 10−14 cm2/W), low nonlinear absorption coefficient (β = 0.88 cm/GW) and minimum figure of merit (FOM=2βλ/n2=2.51) was finally prepared. The electronic contribution in weak heterpolar covalent and homopolar bonds are responsible for large n 2 in chalcogenide glass, and the Sheik-Bahae rule combining the Moss rule are proved to be an effective guidance for estimating the third-order nonlinearities and further optimizing the compositions in chalcogenide glasses.

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).
  10. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, Y. Q. Gong, and X. J. Zhao, “Preparation and properties of chalcogenide glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1159–1163 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Červinka and A. Hruby, “Structure of amorphous and glassy Sb2S3 and its connection with the structure of As2S3 arsenic chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48(2-3), 231–264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. E. Aber, M. C. Newstein, and B. A. Garetz, “Femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect Measurements in Silicate Glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(1), 120–127 (2000).
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  20. R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, Y. Q. Gong, and X. J. Zhao, “Preparation and properties of chalcogenide glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1159–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

2004

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Chalcogenide Glass Fibers and Their Application to All-Optical Switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

L. Červinka and A. Hruby, “Structure of amorphous and glassy Sb2S3 and its connection with the structure of As2S3 arsenic chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48(2-3), 231–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aber, J. E.

Agarwal, A.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Aitken, B. G.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Chalcogenide Glass Fibers and Their Application to All-Optical Switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barthélémy, A.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boudebs, G.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardinal, T.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casstevens, M. K.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cervinka, L.

L. Červinka and A. Hruby, “Structure of amorphous and glassy Sb2S3 and its connection with the structure of As2S3 arsenic chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48(2-3), 231–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cherukulappurath, S.

Chu, S. S.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couderc, V.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C. M.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Gao, C.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garetz, B. A.

Gaylord, S.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. Q.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, Y. Q. Gong, and X. J. Zhao, “Preparation and properties of chalcogenide glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1159–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. X.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H. T.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, Y. Q. Gong, and X. J. Zhao, “Preparation and properties of chalcogenide glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1159–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harbold, J. M.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, X.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hruby, A.

L. Červinka and A. Hruby, “Structure of amorphous and glassy Sb2S3 and its connection with the structure of As2S3 arsenic chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48(2-3), 231–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Humeau, A.

Ilday, F. Ö.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kitao, M.

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Le Foulgoc, K.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. L.

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. M.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B. Q.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, S.

Massera, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Minakata, M.

Miyazawa, T.

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Newstein, M. C.

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Ogusu, K.

Ohara, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfleger, J.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pureza, P.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Qian, S. X.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quémard, C.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, K. A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Schulte, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H. Z.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, Y. Q. Gong, and X. J. Zhao, “Preparation and properties of chalcogenide glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1159–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Viens, J. F.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. F.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. F.

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. W.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, J.

Yokohama, I.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. G.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y. B.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. J.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, Y. Q. Gong, and X. J. Zhao, “Preparation and properties of chalcogenide glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1159–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. L.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, Y. Q. Gong, and X. J. Zhao, “Preparation and properties of chalcogenide glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1159–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Červinka and A. Hruby, “Structure of amorphous and glassy Sb2S3 and its connection with the structure of As2S3 arsenic chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48(2-3), 231–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng., B

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Chalcogenide Glass Fibers and Their Application to All-Optical Switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun.

X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic pictures of Z-scan and OKE measurements. M1,M2,M3, etc.: mirror; P1,P2: polarizer; L1,L2,L3: lens; D1,D2: Energy Probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission spectrum and curve on the refractive index of 63GeS2·27Sb2S3·10CdS glass in UV–Vis–NIR region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Z-scan signals and fitting curves of the 63GeS2·27Sb2S3·10CdS glass in the conditions of (a) close aperture measurement and (b) open aperture measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-resolved Optical Kerr signals of (a) reference CS2 (b) glasses in Series II: (100-x)(0.7GeS2·0.3Sb2S3)·xCdS

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The evolutions of experimental χ (3) obtained from Z-scan and OKE measurements as a function of n 0 and the theoretical fitting curves (the solid line is for Z-scan values and the broken line is for OKE ones) basing on the χ ( 3 ) 1 A [ ( n 0 2 1 ) / 4 π ] 4 × 10 10 equation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The evolution of n 2 as a function of the lone pairs concentration in the examined GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS glasses

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The evolutions of n 2 and β as a function of the glass’s band gap Eg in the examined GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS glasses. The solid lines are the fitting curves basing on the Sheik-Bahae’s rule.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fundamental parameters and third-order nonlinearities of the examined glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system.

Equations (9)

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T ( x , Δ Φ 0 ) = 1 + 4 x Δ Φ 0 / ( x 2 + 9 ) ( x 2 + 1 )
T ( x , Δ Ψ 0 ) = 1 Δ Ψ 0 / 2 ( x 2 + 1 )
n 2 = λ Δ T p v / 0.812 π ( 1 S ) 0.25 I 0 L e f f
β = 2 Δ T v / I 0 L e f f
χ ( 3 ) = χ R ( 3 ) + i χ I ( 3 ) = c n 0 2 n 2 / 16 π 2 + i c λ n 0 2 β / 32 π 3
χ S ( 3 ) = χ R ( 3 ) ( I S / I R ) 1 / 2 ( n 0 S / n 0 R ) 2 ( L R / L S )
χ ( 3 ) [ ( n 0 2 1 ) / 4 π ] 4 × 10 10
n 2 = K ' E p 1 / 2 G / n 0 2 E g 4
β = K E p 1 / 2 F / n 0 2 E g 3

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