Abstract

Localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPPs) provide an efficient means of achieving extreme light concentration. In recent years, their active control has become a major aspiration of plasmonic research. Here, we demonstrate direct control of semiconductor bowtie antennas, enabling active excitation of LSPPs, at terahertz (THz) frequencies. We modify the LSPPs by ultrafast optical modulation of the free carrier density in the plasmonic structure itself, allowing for active control of the semiconductor antennas on picosecond timescales. Moreover, this control enables the manipulation of the field intensity enhancements in ranges of four orders of magnitude.

© 2010 OSA

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  3. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114030 (2009).
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  7. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

G. P. Wiederrecht, G. A. Wurtz, and A. Bouhelier, “Ultrafast hybrid plasmonics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 461(4-6), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Rotemberg, M. Betz, and H. M. Van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33, 21372139 (2008).

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. W. Koch, M. Kira, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Semiconductor excitons in new light,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 523–531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1990

D M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(17), 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, X. Lu, J. Gu, J. Han, Q. Xing, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Large dynamic resonance transition between surface plasmon and localized surface plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12482–12488 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

Betz, M.

N. Rotemberg, M. Betz, and H. M. Van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33, 21372139 (2008).

Bonn, M.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, G. A. Wurtz, and A. Bouhelier, “Ultrafast hybrid plasmonics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 461(4-6), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danckwerts, M.

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fave, C.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Félidj, N.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannini, V.

Gibbs, H. M.

S. W. Koch, M. Kira, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Semiconductor excitons in new light,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 523–531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez Rivas, J.

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grand, J.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

D M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(17), 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

Han, J.

Haring Bolivar, P.

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaac, T. H.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

S. W. Koch, M. Kira, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Semiconductor excitons in new light,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 523–531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kira, M.

S. W. Koch, M. Kira, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Semiconductor excitons in new light,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 523–531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

S. W. Koch, M. Kira, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Semiconductor excitons in new light,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 523–531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, S. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuttge, M.

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, J.-C.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leroux, Y.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lockyear, M. J.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

Martin, O. J. F.

H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, X. Lu, J. Gu, J. Han, Q. Xing, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Large dynamic resonance transition between surface plasmon and localized surface plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12482–12488 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palomba, S.

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. R.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, N. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivas, J. G.

V. Giannini, A. Berrier, S. A. Maier, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, “Scattering efficiency and near field enhancement of active semiconductor plasmonic antennas at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2797–2807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotemberg, N.

N. Rotemberg, M. Betz, and H. M. Van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33, 21372139 (2008).

Samson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

V. Giannini, A. Berrier, S. A. Maier, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, “Scattering efficiency and near field enhancement of active semiconductor plasmonic antennas at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2797–2807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, M. A.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-H.

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stockhausen, V.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suwal, O. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, X. Lu, J. Gu, J. Han, Q. Xing, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Large dynamic resonance transition between surface plasmon and localized surface plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12482–12488 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Driel, H. M.

N. Rotemberg, M. Betz, and H. M. Van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33, 21372139 (2008).

van Exter, D M.

D M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(17), 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. P. Wiederrecht, G. A. Wurtz, and A. Bouhelier, “Ultrafast hybrid plasmonics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 461(4-6), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, G. A. Wurtz, and A. Bouhelier, “Ultrafast hybrid plasmonics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 461(4-6), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

Zhang, W.

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. P. Wiederrecht, G. A. Wurtz, and A. Bouhelier, “Ultrafast hybrid plasmonics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 461(4-6), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Y. Leroux, J.-C. Lacroix, C. Fave, V. Stockhausen, N. Félidj, J. Grand, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Active plasmonic devices with anisotropic optical response: a step toward active polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2144–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

S. W. Koch, M. Kira, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Semiconductor excitons in new light,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 523–531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

N. Rotemberg, M. Betz, and H. M. Van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33, 21372139 (2008).

Phys. Rev. B

J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

D M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(17), 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. Balaris, Antenna Theory, 3rd Edition, (Wiley and Sons, 2005).

S. Adachi, Handbook on physical properties of semiconductors, Vol. 1 (Kluwer, 2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modulus of the real part and imaginary part of the permittivity of doped silicon obtained by the Drude model as a function of the frequency and of the carrier concentration. The permittivity of gold is also displayed for comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Skin depth (in micrometers) as a function of the plasma frequency ωp and of the scattering rate γp at the frequency of 0.9 THz. For display purposes the scale bar has been set between 0 and 20 μm. The white ellipse corresponds to the region of photoexcited silicon. The orange dot corresponds to the values for Gold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical microscope image of the fabricated sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic drawing of the experimental configuration. (a) a resonant semiconductor bowtie antenna under optical pumping at 3.1 eV illustrated by the blue area. The THz pulse, shown as a smaller brown area, is following the pumping pulse and has a beam waist of about 1.8 mm. A typical temporal transient is shown on the THz beam. The inset is an optical microscope view of a fabricated bowtie antenna. (b) Resonant silicon antenna under THz illumination. The modified shape of the temporal THz transient is shown. The red glow indicates the regions of field enhancement around the bowtie structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Temporal transients of the THz pulses after transmission through the silicon antennas in a pumped or unpumped state; the inset shows the respective FFT amplitudes; (b) Experimental extinction of a collection of silicon bowtie antennas as a function of the pumping energy. (c) Extinction efficiency of a collection of silicon bowtie antennas made of doped material compared to that of a collection of optically pumped bowtie antennas at 2.8 mJ/cm2. The polarization of the THz radiation is parallel to the long axis of the antenna as displayed in the schematic inset; (d) Extinction of the optically pumped antenna when the polarization direction is perpendicular to the long axis of the antenna as shown on the schematic drawing in the inset.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extinction efficiencies obtained by three dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations of silicon bowtie antennas. The permittivity is obtained by the Drude model. (a) Extinction efficiency for a silicon bowtie antenna of width 40 μm, length 100 μm, and gap 20 μm. The carrier concentration is 5 x 1019 cm−3. (b) Extinction efficiency as a function of the carrier concentration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Time resolved differential signal pump ON/pump OFF as a function of the pump-probe delay; (b) Extinction cross-section measured before the arrival of the pump pulse (top) and simulation of the field intensity enhancement profile around the bowtie antenna before the arrival of the pump pulse (bottom). The field intensity enhancement is displayed in logarithmic scale; (c) Extinction cross-section measured after the arrival of the pump pulse (top) and simulation of the field intensity profile around the bowtie antenna after the arrival of the pump pulse (bottom). The field intensity enhancement is displayed in logarithmic scale.

Equations (1)

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ε(ω ) = ε ω p 2 ω 2 + i γ ω ,

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