Abstract

We demonstrate the excitation of second harmonic radiation of noncentrosymmetric nanoparticles dispersed on a planar optical waveguide by the evanescent field of the guided mode. Polarization imaging reveals information on the orientation of the crystal axis of individual nanoparticles. Interference patterns generated from adjacent particles at the second harmonic frequency are - to the authors knowledge - observed for the first time. The actual form of the interference pattern is explained on the basis of a dipole radiation model, taking into account the nanoparticles’ orientation, surface effects, and the characteristics of the imaging optics.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. N. Zeller, G. Voirin, and R. E. Kunz, “Single-pad scheme for integrated optical fluorescence sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 591–595 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides- a review,” Sensors 8, 711–738 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Kappel, A. Selle, T. Fricke-Begemann, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Giant enhancement of two-photon fluorescence induced by resonant double grating waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 531–534 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuna, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J. P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 15342–15349 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17, 2880–2891 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721–10724 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Nano-frog: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single ktp nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4652–4658 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Extermann, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. Wolf, “An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 537–540 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Shen, J. Swiatkiewicz, J. Winiarz, P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency imaging of organic nanocrystals with photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2946 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Jasny and J. Sepiol, “Single molecules observed by immersion mirror objective. a novel method of finding the orientation of a radiating dipole,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273, 439–443 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Bohmer and J. Enderlein, “Orientation imaging of single molecules by wide-field epifluorescence microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 554–559 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Le Floc’h, S. Brasselet, J. F. Roch, and J. Zyss, “Monitoring of orientation in molecular ensembles by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403–12410 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. I. Dadap, “Optical second-harmonic scattering from cylindrical particles,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205322 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Steyer and W. Almers, “Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 2262–2271 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

2008 (5)

J. I. Dadap, “Optical second-harmonic scattering from cylindrical particles,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides- a review,” Sensors 8, 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Nano-frog: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Kappel, A. Selle, T. Fricke-Begemann, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Giant enhancement of two-photon fluorescence induced by resonant double grating waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 531–534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Bohmer and J. Enderlein, “Orientation imaging of single molecules by wide-field epifluorescence microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Le Floc’h, S. Brasselet, J. F. Roch, and J. Zyss, “Monitoring of orientation in molecular ensembles by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403–12410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. N. Zeller, G. Voirin, and R. E. Kunz, “Single-pad scheme for integrated optical fluorescence sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 591–595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, J. Swiatkiewicz, J. Winiarz, P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency imaging of organic nanocrystals with photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Steyer and W. Almers, “Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 2262–2271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

J. Jasny and J. Sepiol, “Single molecules observed by immersion mirror objective. a novel method of finding the orientation of a radiating dipole,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273, 439–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Almers, W.

J. Steyer and W. Almers, “Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 2262–2271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bader, M. A.

C. Kappel, A. Selle, T. Fricke-Begemann, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Giant enhancement of two-photon fluorescence induced by resonant double grating waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 531–534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bar, E.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bohmer, M.

Bonacina, L.

Bopp, M. A.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Budach, W.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chauvat, D.

Choi, J. W.

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Courvoisier, F.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Nano-frog: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cuna, E.

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, “Optical second-harmonic scattering from cylindrical particles,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duveneck, G. L.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ehrat, M.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, J.

Extermann, J.

J. Extermann, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. Wolf, “An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 537–540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuna, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J. P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 15342–15349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Nano-frog: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

Forro, L.

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fricke-Begemann, T.

C. Kappel, A. Selle, T. Fricke-Begemann, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Giant enhancement of two-photon fluorescence induced by resonant double grating waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 531–534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gacoin, T.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single ktp nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galez, C.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Nano-frog: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17, 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haiml, M.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, C.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides- a review,” Sensors 8, 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. L.

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17, 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jasny, J.

J. Jasny and J. Sepiol, “Single molecules observed by immersion mirror objective. a novel method of finding the orientation of a radiating dipole,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273, 439–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kachynski, A. V.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kappel, C.

C. Kappel, A. Selle, T. Fricke-Begemann, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Giant enhancement of two-photon fluorescence induced by resonant double grating waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 531–534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, C.

Keller, U.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiselev, D.

Kunz, R. E.

P. N. Zeller, G. Voirin, and R. E. Kunz, “Single-pad scheme for integrated optical fluorescence sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 591–595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, Y.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Dantec, R.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Nano-frog: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Xuan, L.

Liu, S. W.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Magrez, A.

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markowicz, P.

Y. Shen, J. Swiatkiewicz, J. Winiarz, P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency imaging of organic nanocrystals with photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

C. Kappel, A. Selle, T. Fricke-Begemann, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Giant enhancement of two-photon fluorescence induced by resonant double grating waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 531–534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marquier, F.

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, Y.

Neuschafer, D.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nyk, M.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oehse, K.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides- a review,” Sensors 8, 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pawlak, M.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perruchas, S.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single ktp nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pieles, U.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, J. Swiatkiewicz, J. Winiarz, P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency imaging of organic nanocrystals with photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17, 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17, 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radzewicz, C.

Ricca, A.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roch, J. F.

Roy, I.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandeau, N.

Schmitt, K.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides- a review,” Sensors 8, 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Selle, A.

C. Kappel, A. Selle, T. Fricke-Begemann, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Giant enhancement of two-photon fluorescence induced by resonant double grating waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 531–534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sepiol, J.

J. Jasny and J. Sepiol, “Single molecules observed by immersion mirror objective. a novel method of finding the orientation of a radiating dipole,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273, 439–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Swiatkiewicz, J. Winiarz, P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency imaging of organic nanocrystals with photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Slablab, A.

Smajda, R.

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soria, S.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steyer, J.

J. Steyer and W. Almers, “Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 2262–2271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulz, G.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides- a review,” Sensors 8, 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

Y. Shen, J. Swiatkiewicz, J. Winiarz, P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency imaging of organic nanocrystals with photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tard, C.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single ktp nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, R.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voirin, G.

P. N. Zeller, G. Voirin, and R. E. Kunz, “Single-pad scheme for integrated optical fluorescence sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 591–595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winiarz, J.

Y. Shen, J. Swiatkiewicz, J. Winiarz, P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency imaging of organic nanocrystals with photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wnuk, P.

Wolf, J. P.

Xiao, M.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, P. N.

P. N. Zeller, G. Voirin, and R. E. Kunz, “Single-pad scheme for integrated optical fluorescence sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 591–595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Zhou, H. J.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Extermann, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. Wolf, “An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 537–540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (3)

C. Kappel, A. Selle, T. Fricke-Begemann, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Giant enhancement of two-photon fluorescence induced by resonant double grating waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 531–534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M. A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, “Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 869–871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Grange, J. W. Choi, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forro, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, J. Swiatkiewicz, J. Winiarz, P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency imaging of organic nanocrystals with photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

J. Steyer and W. Almers, “Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 2262–2271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

P. N. Zeller, G. Voirin, and R. E. Kunz, “Single-pad scheme for integrated optical fluorescence sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 591–595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Jasny and J. Sepiol, “Single molecules observed by immersion mirror objective. a novel method of finding the orientation of a radiating dipole,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273, 439–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

V. Le Floc’h, S. Brasselet, J. F. Roch, and J. Zyss, “Monitoring of orientation in molecular ensembles by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403–12410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, “Optical second-harmonic scattering from cylindrical particles,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 205322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, and U. Pieles, “Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 88–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides- a review,” Sensors 8, 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Laser radiation is coupled via grating couplers (Gr) into the tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) waveguide which is applied to the surface of a glass substrate. The SH as generated by the nanoparticles on the waveguide is observed by a CCD camera through a microscope objective (Obj). SF: Spectral Filter. PA: Polarization Analyzer. WD: Working Distance of the objective. def: defocusing parameter. Left: 3D view. Right: side view illustrating the geometry of substrate, waveguide, nanoparticles, incident laser beam and the intensity profile of the guided mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Size distribution by number of the KTP nanocrystals suspension fitted by a log-normal function centered at 185 nm. (b) White light image of the scatterers on the waveguide. The dashed lines indicate the extension of the waveguide mode. (c) SH image of the same sample region. Note that the particles encircled in the upper plot are not present in the SH image. (d) Defocused (def = 20 μm) images of the four SH emitting particles of panel (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized power dependence of the SH of nanoparticles AD of Fig. 1(b). (b) and (c) Polarization dependence of SH emission from particles D (▵) and C (□) as a function of the analyzer angle α. (d) and (e) Calculated intensity dependence of SH emission for particles D and C as a function of excitation light polarization (γ) and analyzer angle (continuous line α = 0, dashed line α = 90°). Waveguide evanescent excitation corresponds to γ = 0. Note that the α = 90° response in the upper plot is multiplied by ten for easier inspection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental (first row) and numerical (second row) images of two adjacent nanoparticles excited by the evanescent field and interfering at the SH frequency for different defocusing parameters: def = 0, 20, 50, and 70 μm. The third row contains the corresponding defocused images calculated for the artificial case of no inter-particles interference. The length scale is the same for all plots, the intensity scale are adjusted to facilitate the inspection of interference details but are maintained constant among second and third row for each def value. The resulting out-of-plane orientation of the emitting dipole associated to the upper particle and to the lower particle are θ1 = 90° (in-plane) and θ2 = 35°, respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P i 2 ω = ɛ 0 j k χ ijk ( 2 ) E j ω E k ω
χ ijk ( 2 ) = ijk ¯ χ ijk ¯ ( 2 ) S i i ¯ S j j ¯ S k k ¯

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