Abstract

We propose a polarization modulation scheme of electromagnetic (EM) waves through reflection of a tunable metamaterial reflector/absorber. By constructing the metamaterial with resonant unit cells coupled by diodes, we demonstrate that the EM reflections for orthogonal polarized incident waves can be tuned independently by adjusting the bias voltages on the corresponding diodes. Owing to this feature, the reflected EM waves can be electrically controlled to a linear polarization with continuously tunable azimuth angle from 0° to 90° at the resonant frequency, or an elliptical polarization with tunable azimuth angle of the major axis when off the resonant frequency. The proposed property has been verified through both numerical simulations and experimental measurements at microwave band, which enables us to electrically modulate the polarization state of EM waves flexibly.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. Q. Chen and X.-C. Zhang, “Polarization modulation in optoelectronic generation and detection of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3435–3437 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Hirota, R. Hattori, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization modulation of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by four-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4486–4493 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Betti, G. D. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, “Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1985–1997 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, and M. F. Russel, “Sensitive devices to determine the state and degree of polarization of a light beam using a birefringence modulator,” J. Opt. 8(6), 373–384 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Shimano, H. Nishimura, and T. Sato, “Frequency tunable circular polarization control of terahertz radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L676–L678 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Y. Chin, M. Lu, and T. J. Cui, “Metamaterial polarizers by electric-field-coupled resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251903 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Demetriadou and J. B. Pendry, “Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(37), 376003 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1999).
  15. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 084102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Demetriadou and J. B. Pendry, “Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(37), 376003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Y. Chin, M. Lu, and T. J. Cui, “Metamaterial polarizers by electric-field-coupled resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hirota, R. Hattori, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization modulation of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by four-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4486–4493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. Shimano, H. Nishimura, and T. Sato, “Frequency tunable circular polarization control of terahertz radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L676–L678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Q. Chen and X.-C. Zhang, “Polarization modulation in optoelectronic generation and detection of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3435–3437 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Betti, G. D. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, “Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1985–1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, and M. F. Russel, “Sensitive devices to determine the state and degree of polarization of a light beam using a birefringence modulator,” J. Opt. 8(6), 373–384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Badoz, J.

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, and M. F. Russel, “Sensitive devices to determine the state and degree of polarization of a light beam using a birefringence modulator,” J. Opt. 8(6), 373–384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Betti, S.

S. Betti, G. D. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, “Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1985–1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Billardon, M.

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, and M. F. Russel, “Sensitive devices to determine the state and degree of polarization of a light beam using a birefringence modulator,” J. Opt. 8(6), 373–384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Canit, J. C.

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, and M. F. Russel, “Sensitive devices to determine the state and degree of polarization of a light beam using a birefringence modulator,” J. Opt. 8(6), 373–384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen and X.-C. Zhang, “Polarization modulation in optoelectronic generation and detection of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3435–3437 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

J. Y. Chin, M. Lu, and T. J. Cui, “Metamaterial polarizers by electric-field-coupled resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

J. Y. Chin, M. Lu, and T. J. Cui, “Metamaterial polarizers by electric-field-coupled resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Marchis, G. D.

S. Betti, G. D. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, “Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1985–1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Demetriadou, A.

A. Demetriadou and J. B. Pendry, “Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(37), 376003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

Feng, Y.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hangyo, M.

Hao, J.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattori, R.

He, S.

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, Y.

Huang, C.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iannone, E.

S. Betti, G. D. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, “Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1985–1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, T.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T.

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, T. Q.

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

J. Y. Chin, M. Lu, and T. J. Cui, “Metamaterial polarizers by electric-field-coupled resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, H.

R. Shimano, H. Nishimura, and T. Sato, “Frequency tunable circular polarization control of terahertz radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L676–L678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

A. Demetriadou and J. B. Pendry, “Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(37), 376003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, D. V.

Poutrina, E.

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Powell, D. A.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ran, L.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russel, M. F.

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, and M. F. Russel, “Sensitive devices to determine the state and degree of polarization of a light beam using a birefringence modulator,” J. Opt. 8(6), 373–384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

R. Shimano, H. Nishimura, and T. Sato, “Frequency tunable circular polarization control of terahertz radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L676–L678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shadrivov, I. V.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimano, R.

R. Shimano, H. Nishimura, and T. Sato, “Frequency tunable circular polarization control of terahertz radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L676–L678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Strikwerda, A. C.

Tani, M.

Tao, H.

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F. M.

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. M.

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. X.

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Chen and X.-C. Zhang, “Polarization modulation in optoelectronic generation and detection of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3435–3437 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. N.

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Li, H. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, F. M. Wang, R. X. Wu, P. Chen, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic resonance hybridization and optical activity of microwave in a chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chin, M. Lu, and T. J. Cui, “Metamaterial polarizers by electric-field-coupled resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen and X.-C. Zhang, “Polarization modulation in optoelectronic generation and detection of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3435–3437 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Planar metamaterial absorber for all wave polarizations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 114102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Betti, G. D. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, “Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1985–1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, and M. F. Russel, “Sensitive devices to determine the state and degree of polarization of a light beam using a birefringence modulator,” J. Opt. 8(6), 373–384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

A. Demetriadou and J. B. Pendry, “Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(37), 376003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Shimano, H. Nishimura, and T. Sato, “Frequency tunable circular polarization control of terahertz radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L676–L678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of the tunable metamaterial reflector/absorber. The dashed blue square indicates the unit cell. (b) The fabricated sample. (c) Schematic view of the measurement arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated and measured (a) magnitude and (b) phase of the reflection coefficient under normal incidence at various bias voltages of the diodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization state of the reflected wave under different bias voltages and working frequencies with a normal incident wave linearly polarized along 45° direction with respect to the x axis. (a), (c), (e) denote polarization azimuth angle distributions, and (b), (d), (f) denote the corresponding axial ratio distributions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The modulation of the azimuth angle θ of the major polarization axis with rectified sinusoidal modulation signals applied on the diodes in row A (black) and row B (grey) independently.

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