Abstract

We demonstrate plasma-THz generation in ambient air with two-color (ω-2ω) optical excitation using input pulses with a bandwidth supporting sub-20-fs duration, yielding a continuous bandwidth exceeding 100 THz with no significant roll-off and a pulse energy of 360 nJ at a 1-kHz repetition rate. The key aspect in achieving this performance is an optimized geometry of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) crystal, producing a 2ω-field detuned from the second-harmonic of the ω-field, which promotes both a high polarization bandwidth and optimal ω-2ω temporal overlap in the plasma, as supported by theoretical results.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Kreß, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves, ” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2805–2807 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Q. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. F. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Kübler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses: generation and field-resolved detection,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128–S133 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Mics, P. Kuzel, P. Jungwirth, and S. E. Bradforth, “Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by timeresolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465, 20–24 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

2009 (3)

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T 135, 014024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

. J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Polarization analysis of terahertz radiation generated by four-wave mixing in air,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1195–1197 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q4. J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Wu, J. M. ter Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mics, P. Kuzel, P. Jungwirth, and S. E. Bradforth, “Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by timeresolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465, 20–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Y. Q. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. F. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q2. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses: generation and field-resolved detection,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128–S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

. T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, “Gas-pressure dependence of terahertz-pulse generation in a laser-generated nitrogen plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611–2614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1210–1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1992 (1)

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Bradforth, S. E.

Z. Mics, P. Kuzel, P. Jungwirth, and S. E. Bradforth, “Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by timeresolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465, 20–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brida, D.

Bruzzese, R.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceccherini, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

F. Junginger, A. Sell, O. Schubert, B. Mayer, D. Brida, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Single-cycle multiterahertz transients with peak fields above 10 MV/cm,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2645–2647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. F. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Dai, J. M.

. J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lisio, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eden, S.

Ehrke, H.

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

Ergler, T.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

Gimpel, H.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haglund, J. R. F.

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halabica, A.

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebling, J.

Q4. J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hoffmann, M. C.

Q4. J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

Huang, J. Y.

Huber, R.

F. Junginger, A. Sell, O. Schubert, B. Mayer, D. Brida, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Single-cycle multiterahertz transients with peak fields above 10 MV/cm,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2645–2647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses: generation and field-resolved detection,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128–S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Junginger, F.

Jungwirth, P.

Z. Mics, P. Kuzel, P. Jungwirth, and S. E. Bradforth, “Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by timeresolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465, 20–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreß, M.

Q2. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves, ” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kübler, C.

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses: generation and field-resolved detection,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128–S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuzel, P.

Z. Mics, P. Kuzel, P. Jungwirth, and S. E. Bradforth, “Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by timeresolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465, 20–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

F. Junginger, A. Sell, O. Schubert, B. Mayer, D. Brida, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Single-cycle multiterahertz transients with peak fields above 10 MV/cm,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2645–2647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses: generation and field-resolved detection,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128–S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Löffler, T.

Q2. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves, ” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

. T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, “Gas-pressure dependence of terahertz-pulse generation in a laser-generated nitrogen plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611–2614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangoni, M.

Mayer, B.

Mics, Z.

Z. Mics, P. Kuzel, P. Jungwirth, and S. E. Bradforth, “Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by timeresolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465, 20–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nelson, K. A.

Q4. J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rae, S. C.

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

Q2. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves, ” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

. T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, “Gas-pressure dependence of terahertz-pulse generation in a laser-generated nitrogen plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611–2614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, O.

Sell, A.

Sheng, Z.-M.

H.-C. Wu, J. M. ter Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silaev, A. A.

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T 135, 014024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silvestri, S. D.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ter Vehn, J. M.

H.-C. Wu, J. M. ter Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

Q2. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves, ” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vvedenskii, N. V.

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T 135, 014024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, M. F.

Y. Q. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. F. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Wong, G. K.

Wong, K. S.

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-C.

H.-C. Wu, J. M. ter Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

Y. Q. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. F. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

Q4. J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. F. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Q. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. F. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Mics, P. Kuzel, P. Jungwirth, and S. E. Bradforth, “Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by timeresolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465, 20–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Q4. J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

. T. Löffler and H. G. Roskos, “Gas-pressure dependence of terahertz-pulse generation in a laser-generated nitrogen plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2611–2614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

Q2. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H.-C. Wu, J. M. ter Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, J. R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. T (1)

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T 135, 014024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Kübler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses: generation and field-resolved detection,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128–S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz radiation with a continuous spectral bandwidth reaching beyond 100 THz from a laser-induced gas plasma,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XVII,”, M. Chergui, D. Jonas, E. Riedle, B. Schoenlein, and A. Taylor, eds., (Oxford University Press, New York, 2010). To be published.

T. Balčinas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Puğzlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. Paulus, and A. Baltˇuska, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XVII,”, M. Chergui, D. Jonas, E. Riedle, B. Schoenlein, and A. Taylor, eds., (Oxford University Press, New York, 2010). To be published.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Plasma-THz generation with commensurate (left) and incommensurate (right) optical spectra: optical and resulting THz spectra, two-color fields and plasma polarization components (single FWR term only). (b) Schematic of experimental set-up, including hollow-core fiber compression, plasma generation and FTIR interferometer. (c) Detail of BBO crystal geometry. The optimal geometry for THz emission with the 150-μm-thick 32°-cut BBO crystal corresponded to tilt angles α = 8.1° (horizontal) and β = 2.3° (vertical).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Detected field correlation signal G(τ) (pulse energy 420 μJ, averaged over 12 scans, time constant 50 ms). (b) Intensity spectrum S(ν) calculated from (a), as well as that for the case where a 1-mm-thick polystyrene (PS) plate was inserted into the beam. (c) Corresponding power transmission spectrum T (ν) (red), compared to a measurement using a commercial cw-FTIR spectrometer (blue). Shaded regions in (b) and (c) indicate 95%-confidence intervals in S(ν) and T(ν) from a statistical analysis of the spectra from multiple scans, i.e. the signal S(ν) is statistically significant compared to the noise level wherever the lower confidence bound does not reach zero.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) THz power following an infrared polarizer (Thorlabs KR-5) vs. rotation angle. Note that no polarization-sensitive optics were placed before the polarizer. (b) THz power vs. position of BBO crystal (including polarization-resolved curves). Model results from a batch of numerical simulations are included (dashed curve). The more pronounced oscillations in the model results are partly due to neglecting the finite beam convergence and hence phase shift variation across the optical beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative ω-2ω-phase shift vs. local frequencies Ωn following a 150-μm-thick BBO crystal, calculated using numerical SHG propagation for both sets of polarisation components ωord-2ωext (left graphs) and ωext-2ωext (right graphs). (a,b) For a model 150-fs (FWHM) Gaussian pulse (α = β = 0, transform-limited). (c,d) For the ultra-broadband pulses and crystal orientation (α = 8.1°, β = 2.3°) used in the experiments (using the measured ω-intensity spectrum as input, with a quadratic chirp of +250 fs2). Note the different frequency ranges between (a,b) and (c,d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental and model (a) 2ω- and (b) THz-pulse energy vs. BBO rotation angle ψ for optimized crystal tilt geometry. Upper panels show the ω- and 2ω-spectra vs. their respective frequency detuning (Ωn = ω0, n = 1, 2, where ω0 is the center frequency of the ω-spectrum) for three values ψ = −10°, +10° (maximum SHG) and +38° (maximum THz). The asymmetric dependence on ψ is due to the oblique incidence of the optical beam on the crystal, such that the angle between the ω-ray and the optical axis (o) varies with ψ. The model curve in (b) corresponds to the sum of the THz energies for two values of the relative phase between ω- and 2ω-fields, Δφ = 0,π/2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation results for the three values of BBO rotation angle ψ in Fig. 5. (a) Temporal intensities In(z = 0, t) of the ω- (n = 1) and 2ω-pulses (n = 2) on each polarization axis of the BBO crystal (ordinary, extraordinary). For the relative plasma densities (∼1%) used in the model calculations, only a small spectral blue-shift occurs for each field during propagation through the plasma region [21, 22], and these temporal intensity profiles do not change significantly. (b) Time-dependent relative plasma density ρ(z = 0, t)/ρ0. (c) Predicted low-frequency far-field emission E T ( L , t ) 0 L d z 2 P ( z , t ) / t 2 on each polarization axis. Note that in all cases the total field area is indeed zero, as expected for a propagating wave. The apparent missing contribution is contained in a very weak decaying tail (on the time scale of the scattering time τs), although the integrated intensity in this tail ( ( E T 2 ) is negligible in comparison to the main peaks. (d) Corresponding THz intensity spectra calculated from (c) (left graph for ψ = −10° with 10× magnification).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P t = e 2 m e t / τ s t d t ' I ρ ( t ' ) E ( t ' ) ,
2 P t 2 = e 2 m e t / τ s [ I ρ ( t ) E ( t ) 1 τ s t d t ' I ρ ( t ' ) E ( t ' ) ] .
A n ( z , Ω ) z = i 2 c ( n ω 0 + Ω ) { ω p 2 ( z , T ) A n ( z , T ) } ,

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