Abstract

Mode-locked fiber lasers are currently undergoing a significant evolution towards higher pulse energies and shorter pulse durations. A key enabler in this progress has been the discovery of novel saturable absorbers (SA) such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene. The exceptional properties of CNTs as SA have been extensively studied in recent years. Graphene, a one atom thick planar sheet of carbon atoms arranged into a hexagonal lattice, has been recently proposed as an alternative to CNTs in several photonics applications. Here, we propose a method for the integration of graphene into a fiber ferrule using an optical deposition technique, which has been also employed for the deposition of CNT directly on the core of a fiber edge and in tapered fibers. We investigate and compare the optical properties of CNT-SA and graphene-SA fabricated by this optical deposition technique. Soliton-like, mode-locked lasing is confirmed using an erbium doped optical fiber in an all-fiber ring cavity laser configuration.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (6)

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Shohda, Y. Hori, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “131 fs, 33 MHz all-fiber soliton laser at 1.07 microm with a film-type SWNT saturable absorber coated on polyimide,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11223–11229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (10)

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Uchida, A. Martinez, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Carbon nanotube-doped polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3077–3079 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, H. Jung, K. Oh, and D.-I. Yeom, “Femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser employing a hollow optical fiber filled with carbon nanotube dispersion as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21788–21793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. P. Ippen, “Principle of passive mode locking,” Appl. Phys. B 58(3), 159–170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Achiba, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, B.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M.-K.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. P.

Buckley, J.

Buckley, J. R.

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. Y.

Chong, A.

Clark, W. G.

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Digiovanni, D. J.

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hakulinen, T.

Han, W.-S.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Härkönen, A.

Hartl, I.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hori, Y.

Ilday, F. O.

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilday, F. Ö.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Ishigure, T.

Itoga, E.

Itoh, K.

Jablonski, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S.-Y.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, K.

Kaskela, A.

Kataura, H.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, E. I.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

Kivistö, S.

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumazawa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, Y.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maniwa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Martinez, A.

Mata, J.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyamoto, I.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Nasibulin, A. G.

Nelson, L. E.

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishizawa, N.

Oh, K.

Ohtsuka, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Oktem, B.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, S.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renninger, W.

Rotermund, F.

Rozhin, A.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakakibara, Y.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seno, Y.

Set, S. Y.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shohda, F.

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Uchida, A. Martinez, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Carbon nanotube-doped polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3077–3079 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumimura, K.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Travers, J.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, J.

Uchida, S.

Ülgüdür, C.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Umezu, I.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “All-fiber normal-dispersion femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11453–11458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaguchi, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D.-I.

Yokota, Y.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. P. Ippen, “Principle of passive mode locking,” Appl. Phys. B 58(3), 159–170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond and nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res. (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “All-fiber normal-dispersion femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11453–11458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “In-fiber microchannel device filled with a carbon nanotube dispersion for passive mode-lock lasing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15425–15430 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chong, J. Buckley, W. Renninger, and F. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10095–10100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9176–9183 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, H. Jung, K. Oh, and D.-I. Yeom, “Femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser employing a hollow optical fiber filled with carbon nanotube dispersion as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21788–21793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, Y. Hori, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “131 fs, 33 MHz all-fiber soliton laser at 1.07 microm with a film-type SWNT saturable absorber coated on polyimide,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11223–11229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met. (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “A noise suppressing saturable absorber at 1550 nm based on carbon nanotube technology” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest Optical Society of America, 2003, Vol. 2, 723–725.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Novel cost effective carbon nanotubes deposition technique using optical tweezer effect,” SPIE Photonics West, no. 6478–15, Jan. 2007.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) graphite, (b) HiPCO-CNTs, (c) Solution of graphene in DMF after the ultrasonic and subsequent centrifugation treatment (d) Transmission of graphene (black) and CNT (gray) solutions on DMF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Set-up employed for the optical deposition, (b) and (c) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the optical fibers with graphene and CNT optical deposited in their core region, insertion losses were 8dB and 3dB respectively. The insets show the corresponding microscopic pictures of the fiber edge confirming the deposition into the core of the fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Saturable absorption of a CNT-SA (black) and a graphene SA (grey). Inset, microscopic image of graphene-SA used for the saturable absorber measurements and for the mode-locking experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

All-fiber ring cavity laser configuration, WDM – wavelength division multiplexer, EDF – erbium doped fiber, ISO – isolator, SMF – single mode fiber, SA – saturable absorber “sandwiched” between two butt-coupled flat connectors PC – polarization controller.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output spectra of the ring cavity laser when using the CNT-SA (a) and the graphene-SA (d), autocorrelation traces at the output of the laser using the CNT-SA (b) and the graphene-SA (e), RF spectrum in its fundamental repetition rate of the fiber laser when using the CNT-SA (c) and the graphene-SA (f)

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