Abstract

We have studied the ultrafast dynamics of coherent phonons in sapphire crystals irradiated with 60Co γ-rays for three different doses by femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) technique at room temperature. The obtained fs-CARS signals exhibit well-defined quantum beats, which are ascribed to the interference of the 645 and 750 cm−1 phonon modes. The dephasing times of the two modes both decrease with increasing irradiation dose, which is due to the scattering of coherent phonons by the defects introduced by γ-ray irradiation.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. A. G. Lanin, E. L. Muravin, V. P. Popov, and V. N. Turchin, “Thermal shock resistance and thermal-mechanical processing of sapphire,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23(3), 455–468 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1258–1260 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated graphite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3965–3967 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and plasmon-phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated n-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3668–3670 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz beats of vibrational modes studied by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 22(12), 1735–1741 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133(5), 373–377 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Heid, T. Chen, U. Schmitt, and W. Kiefer, “Spectrally resolved fs-CARS as a probe of the vibrational dynamics of a large polyatomic molecule: magnesium octaethylporphyrin,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334(1–3), 119–126 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4298–4300 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Meyer, M. Schmitt, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, and V. Engel, “A theoretical analysis of the time-resolved femtosecond CARS spectrum of I2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281(4–6), 332–336 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Karavitis, R. Zadoyan, and V. Ara Apkarian, “Time resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of I2 isolated in matrix argon: Vibrational dynamics on the ground electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(9), 4131–4140 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. J. Lee, S. H. Parekh, Y. H. Kim, and M. T. Cicerone, “Optimized continuum from a photonic crystal fiber for broadband time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4371–4379 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Kadleı́ková, J. Breza, and M. Veselý, “Raman spectra of synthetic sapphire,” Microelectron. J. 32(12), 955–958 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Cui, M. Joffre, J. Skodack, and J. P. Ogilvie, “Interferometric Fourier transform coherent antistokes Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8448–8458 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. S. Choi, S. C. Jeoung, and B. H. Chon, “Thickness dependent CARS measurement of polymeric thin films without depth-profiling,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2604–2613 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Laubereau and W. Kaiser, “Vibrational dynamics of liquids and solids investigated by picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 50(3), 607–665 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Chernyak, A. Piryatinski, and S. Mukamel, “Complete Determination of Relaxation Parameters from Two-Dimensional Raman Spectroscopy,” Laser Chem. 19(1–4), 109–116 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz Phonons Driven by Light Pulses and the Sb Problem: What is the Mechanism?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

D. S. Choi, S. C. Jeoung, and B. H. Chon, “Thickness dependent CARS measurement of polymeric thin films without depth-profiling,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2604–2613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Cui, M. Joffre, J. Skodack, and J. P. Ogilvie, “Interferometric Fourier transform coherent antistokes Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8448–8458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4298–4300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. G. Lanin, E. L. Muravin, V. P. Popov, and V. N. Turchin, “Thermal shock resistance and thermal-mechanical processing of sapphire,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23(3), 455–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and plasmon-phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated n-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

M. Karavitis, R. Zadoyan, and V. Ara Apkarian, “Time resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of I2 isolated in matrix argon: Vibrational dynamics on the ground electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(9), 4131–4140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kadleı́ková, J. Breza, and M. Veselý, “Raman spectra of synthetic sapphire,” Microelectron. J. 32(12), 955–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated graphite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3965–3967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Heid, T. Chen, U. Schmitt, and W. Kiefer, “Spectrally resolved fs-CARS as a probe of the vibrational dynamics of a large polyatomic molecule: magnesium octaethylporphyrin,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334(1–3), 119–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1258–1260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. Chernyak, A. Piryatinski, and S. Mukamel, “Complete Determination of Relaxation Parameters from Two-Dimensional Raman Spectroscopy,” Laser Chem. 19(1–4), 109–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Meyer, M. Schmitt, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, and V. Engel, “A theoretical analysis of the time-resolved femtosecond CARS spectrum of I2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281(4–6), 332–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz Phonons Driven by Light Pulses and the Sb Problem: What is the Mechanism?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz beats of vibrational modes studied by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 22(12), 1735–1741 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. Laubereau and W. Kaiser, “Vibrational dynamics of liquids and solids investigated by picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 50(3), 607–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, T. F.

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz Phonons Driven by Light Pulses and the Sb Problem: What is the Mechanism?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ara Apkarian, V.

M. Karavitis, R. Zadoyan, and V. Ara Apkarian, “Time resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of I2 isolated in matrix argon: Vibrational dynamics on the ground electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(9), 4131–4140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Book, L. D.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Breza, J.

M. Kadleı́ková, J. Breza, and M. Veselý, “Raman spectra of synthetic sapphire,” Microelectron. J. 32(12), 955–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Heid, T. Chen, U. Schmitt, and W. Kiefer, “Spectrally resolved fs-CARS as a probe of the vibrational dynamics of a large polyatomic molecule: magnesium octaethylporphyrin,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334(1–3), 119–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chernyak, V.

V. Chernyak, A. Piryatinski, and S. Mukamel, “Complete Determination of Relaxation Parameters from Two-Dimensional Raman Spectroscopy,” Laser Chem. 19(1–4), 109–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. S.

Chon, B. H.

Cicerone, M. T.

Cui, M.

Domyo, H.

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y. J.

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engel, V.

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Meyer, M. Schmitt, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, and V. Engel, “A theoretical analysis of the time-resolved femtosecond CARS spectrum of I2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281(4–6), 332–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, G. A.

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz Phonons Driven by Light Pulses and the Sb Problem: What is the Mechanism?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamaguchi, H.

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4298–4300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. C.

G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harima, H.

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hase, M.

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and plasmon-phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated n-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated graphite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3965–3967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1258–1260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

He, X. D.

G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heid, M.

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Heid, T. Chen, U. Schmitt, and W. Kiefer, “Spectrally resolved fs-CARS as a probe of the vibrational dynamics of a large polyatomic molecule: magnesium octaethylporphyrin,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334(1–3), 119–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hishita, S.

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1258–1260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ho, T.

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holzapfel, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz beats of vibrational modes studied by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 22(12), 1735–1741 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ishioka, K.

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and plasmon-phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated n-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated graphite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3965–3967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1258–1260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeoung, S. C.

Joffre, M.

Kadlei´ková, M.

M. Kadleı́ková, J. Breza, and M. Veselý, “Raman spectra of synthetic sapphire,” Microelectron. J. 32(12), 955–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz beats of vibrational modes studied by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 22(12), 1735–1741 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubereau and W. Kaiser, “Vibrational dynamics of liquids and solids investigated by picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 50(3), 607–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kalugin, N. G.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4298–4300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karavitis, M.

M. Karavitis, R. Zadoyan, and V. Ara Apkarian, “Time resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of I2 isolated in matrix argon: Vibrational dynamics on the ground electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(9), 4131–4140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, W.

M. Heid, T. Chen, U. Schmitt, and W. Kiefer, “Spectrally resolved fs-CARS as a probe of the vibrational dynamics of a large polyatomic molecule: magnesium octaethylporphyrin,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334(1–3), 119–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Meyer, M. Schmitt, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, and V. Engel, “A theoretical analysis of the time-resolved femtosecond CARS spectrum of I2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281(4–6), 332–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

Kitajima, M.

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and plasmon-phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated n-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated graphite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3965–3967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1258–1260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kolomenskii, A.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lanin, A. G.

A. G. Lanin, E. L. Muravin, V. P. Popov, and V. N. Turchin, “Thermal shock resistance and thermal-mechanical processing of sapphire,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23(3), 455–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laubereau, A.

A. Laubereau and W. Kaiser, “Vibrational dynamics of liquids and solids investigated by picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 50(3), 607–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Leonhardt, R.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz beats of vibrational modes studied by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 22(12), 1735–1741 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. J.

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. Q.

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Materny, A.

S. Meyer, M. Schmitt, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, and V. Engel, “A theoretical analysis of the time-resolved femtosecond CARS spectrum of I2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281(4–6), 332–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merlin, R.

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz Phonons Driven by Light Pulses and the Sb Problem: What is the Mechanism?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, S.

S. Meyer, M. Schmitt, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, and V. Engel, “A theoretical analysis of the time-resolved femtosecond CARS spectrum of I2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281(4–6), 332–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizoguchi, K.

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mukamel, S.

V. Chernyak, A. Piryatinski, and S. Mukamel, “Complete Determination of Relaxation Parameters from Two-Dimensional Raman Spectroscopy,” Laser Chem. 19(1–4), 109–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muravin, E. L.

A. G. Lanin, E. L. Muravin, V. P. Popov, and V. N. Turchin, “Thermal shock resistance and thermal-mechanical processing of sapphire,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23(3), 455–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murawski, R.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, S.

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvie, J. P.

Parekh, S. H.

Pestov, D.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piryatinski, A.

V. Chernyak, A. Piryatinski, and S. Mukamel, “Complete Determination of Relaxation Parameters from Two-Dimensional Raman Spectroscopy,” Laser Chem. 19(1–4), 109–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V. P.

A. G. Lanin, E. L. Muravin, V. P. Popov, and V. N. Turchin, “Thermal shock resistance and thermal-mechanical processing of sapphire,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23(3), 455–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qian, X. B.

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sariyanni, Z. E.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schlücker, S.

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

S. Meyer, M. Schmitt, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, and V. Engel, “A theoretical analysis of the time-resolved femtosecond CARS spectrum of I2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281(4–6), 332–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, U.

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Heid, T. Chen, U. Schmitt, and W. Kiefer, “Spectrally resolved fs-CARS as a probe of the vibrational dynamics of a large polyatomic molecule: magnesium octaethylporphyrin,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334(1–3), 119–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer-Stenner, R.

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Si, J. L.

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skodack, J.

Sokolov, A. V.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turchin, V. N.

A. G. Lanin, E. L. Muravin, V. P. Popov, and V. N. Turchin, “Thermal shock resistance and thermal-mechanical processing of sapphire,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23(3), 455–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ushida, K.

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and plasmon-phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated n-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated graphite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3965–3967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1258–1260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veselý, M.

M. Kadleı́ková, J. Breza, and M. Veselý, “Raman spectra of synthetic sapphire,” Microelectron. J. 32(12), 955–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vodenitcharova, T.

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. G.

G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz Phonons Driven by Light Pulses and the Sb Problem: What is the Mechanism?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. H.

G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zadoyan, R.

M. Karavitis, R. Zadoyan, and V. Ara Apkarian, “Time resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of I2 isolated in matrix argon: Vibrational dynamics on the ground electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(9), 4131–4140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zarudi, I.

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. C.

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. F.

G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhi, M. C.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G. Q.

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz beats of vibrational modes studied by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 22(12), 1735–1741 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, H. B.

G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1258–1260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated graphite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3965–3967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, and K. Ushida, “Ultrafast carrier and plasmon-phonon dynamics in ion-irradiated n-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4298–4300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Meyer, M. Schmitt, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, and V. Engel, “A theoretical analysis of the time-resolved femtosecond CARS spectrum of I2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 281(4–6), 332–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Heid, T. Chen, U. Schmitt, and W. Kiefer, “Spectrally resolved fs-CARS as a probe of the vibrational dynamics of a large polyatomic molecule: magnesium octaethylporphyrin,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334(1–3), 119–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

G. G. Wang, M. F. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. D. He, H. B. Zuo, and X. H. Yang, “High-temperature infrared and dielectric properties of large sapphire crystal for seeker dome application,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 531–536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Karavitis, R. Zadoyan, and V. Ara Apkarian, “Time resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of I2 isolated in matrix argon: Vibrational dynamics on the ground electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(9), 4131–4140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

A. G. Lanin, E. L. Muravin, V. P. Popov, and V. N. Turchin, “Thermal shock resistance and thermal-mechanical processing of sapphire,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23(3), 455–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

T. Vodenitcharova, L. C. Zhang, I. Zarudi, Y. Yin, H. Domyo, T. Ho, and M. Sato, “The effect of anisotropy on the deformation and fracture of sapphire wafers subjected to thermal shocks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 194(1–3), 52–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

M. Heid, S. Schlücker, U. Schmitt, T. Chen, R. Schweitzer-Stenner, V. Engel, and W. Kiefer, “Two-dimensional probing of ground-state vibrational dynamics in porphyrin molecules by fs-CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32(9), 771–784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Femtosecond CARS of methanol–water mixtures,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1–3), 392–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser Chem. (1)

V. Chernyak, A. Piryatinski, and S. Mukamel, “Complete Determination of Relaxation Parameters from Two-Dimensional Raman Spectroscopy,” Laser Chem. 19(1–4), 109–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

G. Q. Zhou, Y. J. Dong, J. Xu, H. J. Li, J. L. Si, X. B. Qian, and X. Q. Li, “Φ140 mm sapphire crystal growth by temperature gradient techniques and its color centers,” Mater. Lett. 60(7), 901–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. J. (1)

M. Kadleı́ková, J. Breza, and M. Veselý, “Raman spectra of synthetic sapphire,” Microelectron. J. 32(12), 955–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz Phonons Driven by Light Pulses and the Sb Problem: What is the Mechanism?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. Laubereau and W. Kaiser, “Vibrational dynamics of liquids and solids investigated by picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 50(3), 607–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) (1)

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz beats of vibrational modes studied by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 22(12), 1735–1741 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of the fs-CARS; BS: Beam splitter; L: Lens; Pol: polarizer, (b)energy diagram, and (c) folded BOXCARS configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectrum of the sapphire at room temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fs-CARS signals for sapphire samples irradiated with 60Co γ-rays at doses of (a) 1 × 107 rad, (b) 1 × 108 rad, and (c) 5 × 108 rad. Solid circle: experimental data; solid line: fitting curves.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The values of T 2 a , T 2 b and Δ φ obtained from fitting the experimental data with the function of Eq. (2)

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S c ( τ ) + | P c ( 3 ) ( τ , t ) | 2 d t
S c ( τ ) Q 0 a 2 exp ( 2 τ / T 2 a ) + Q 0 b 2 exp ( 2 τ / T 2 b ) + 2 Q 0 a Q 0 b exp ( τ ( T 2 a + T 2 b ) / T 2 a T 2 b ) cos ( Δ ω τ + Δ φ )
N = 1 f × 0.87 × 10 17 K W × n ( n 2 + 2 ) 2

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