Abstract

We experimentally investigate four-wave mixing (FWM) in short (80 μm) dispersion-engineered slow light silicon photonic crystal waveguides. The pump, probe and idler signals all lie in a 14 nm wide low dispersion region with a near-constant group velocity of c/30. We measure an instantaneous conversion efficiency of up to −9dB between the idler and the continuous-wave probe, with 1W peak pump power and 6nm pump-probe detuning. This conversion efficiency is found to be considerably higher (>10 × ) than that of a Si nanowire with a group velocity ten times larger. In addition, we estimate the FWM bandwidth to be at least that of the flat band slow light window. These results, supported by numerical simulations, emphasize the importance of engineering the dispersion of PhC waveguides to exploit the slow light enhancement of FWM efficiency, even for short device lengths.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Eckhouse, I. Cestier, G. Eisenstein, S. Combrié, P. Colman, A. De Rossi, M. Santagiustina, C. G. Someda, and G. Vadalà, “Highly efficient four wave mixing in GaInP photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1440–1442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. Jia, M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. Yu, “Effects of waveguide length and pump power on the efficiency of wavelength conversion in silicon nanowire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3502–3504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, Y. Hamachi, and T. Baba, “Fabrication and characterization of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22393–22400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of Broadband Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s in Silicon Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, H. Oda, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in slow-light photonic-crystal slab waveguides of line-defect,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7206–7216 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baron, A. Ryasnyanskiy, N. Dubreuil, P. Delaye, Q. Vy Tran, S. Combrié, A. de Rossi, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, “Light localization induced enhancement of third order nonlinearities in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 552–557 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hamachi, S. Kubo, and T. Baba, “Slow light with low dispersion and nonlinear enhancement in a lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1072–1074 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, “Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22442–22451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. T. Kuhlmey, and C. M. de Sterke, “Multi-order dispersion engineering for optimal four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7551–7563 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. C. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16735–16745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2002

2001

N. A. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056604–056604 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakawa, K.

Baba, T.

Baron, A.

Beggs, D. M.

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

Bergman, K.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of Broadband Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s in Silicon Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, N. A. R.

N. A. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056604–056604 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of Broadband Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s in Silicon Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Canciamilla, A.

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cestier, I.

Chen, P.

Choi, D.-Y.

Cohen, O.

Colman, P.

V. Eckhouse, I. Cestier, G. Eisenstein, S. Combrié, P. Colman, A. De Rossi, M. Santagiustina, C. G. Someda, and G. Vadalà, “Highly efficient four wave mixing in GaInP photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1440–1442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Combrié, S.

Corcoran, B.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Rue, R.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

De Rossi, A.

de Sterke, C. M.

Delaye, P.

Dubreuil, N.

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Eckhouse, V.

Eggleton, B. J.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. C. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
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C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
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C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
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B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
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D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
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B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
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C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
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T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

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B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of Broadband Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s in Silicon Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
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Li, J.

Lipson, M.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of Broadband Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s in Silicon Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
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Liu, Y.

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Madden, S.

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T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. C. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Mori, D.

Morichetti, F.

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
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O’Faolain, L.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oda, H.

O'Faolain, L.

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

Paniccia, M.

Pelusi, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
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Poulton, C. G.

Pudo, D.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raineri, F.

Rong, H.

Rong, H. S.

Roosen, G.

Ryasnyanskiy, A.

Salem, R.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samarelli, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

Santagiustina, M.

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, S.

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sih, V.

Sipe, J. E.

N. A. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056604–056604 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. L. C.

Soljacic, M.

Someda, C. G.

Sorel, M.

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Tran, Q. V.

S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, “Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22442–22451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of Broadband Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s in Silicon Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vadalà, G.

Vy Tran, Q.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, C. W.

Xu, S. B.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yu, M.

Zhang, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of Broadband Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s in Silicon Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

M. R. E. Lamont, B. T. Kuhlmey, and C. M. de Sterke, “Multi-order dispersion engineering for optimal four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7551–7563 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16735–16745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, H. S. Rong, V. Sih, S. B. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. C. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, Y. Hamachi, and T. Baba, “Fabrication and characterization of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22393–22400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, A. S. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1182–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6831–6840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, “Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22442–22451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9444–9450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, H. Oda, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in slow-light photonic-crystal slab waveguides of line-defect,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7206–7216 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baron, A. Ryasnyanskiy, N. Dubreuil, P. Delaye, Q. Vy Tran, S. Combrié, A. de Rossi, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, “Light localization induced enhancement of third order nonlinearities in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 552–557 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 GBit/s,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(2), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

N. A. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056604–056604 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng.

T. F. Krauss, L. O'Faolain, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, A. Melloni, P. Lalanne, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Understanding the rich physics of light propagation in slow photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7612, 76120L (2010) (SPIE).

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, 2nd Edition (Academic Press, San Diego 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a-b) Schematic of the set-up associated with the partially degenerate FWM configuration investigated here along with the probed planar PhC waveguide. (c) Spectral variation of the group index for the dispersion engineered PhC waveguide with the wavelength of the probe, pump and idler highlighted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a-b) FWM spectra (a) measured and (b) simulated out of the slow light PhC waveguide for a constant 1W coupled peak pump power (at 1558.7nm) and increasing cw probe power from 0.1mW (black dotted line) to 0.4mW (red solid line) at 1565.5nm. Inset: Associated idler peak power at the end of the waveguide versus probe coupled power from (stars) experiments and (dashed red line) simulations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) FWM spectra measured from the slow light PhC waveguide for 400μW cw probe at 1565.5nm, and increasing pump powers between 0.3W and 3W at 1559nm. (b) (black stars) Conversion efficiency Pidler(L)/Pprobe(0) extracted from (a) and (red triangles) normalized pump transmission as a function of pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectra measured from the nanowire for 1W and 3W pump power (1559nm) and 25μW and 400μW cw probe power (1564.4nm) as indicated in the legend (Ppump-Pprobe). (b) Conversion efficiency extracted from the data (black stars) at 400μW probe power and normalized pump transmission (red triangles) versus pump power. The dashed line is the minimum conversion efficiency that could be measured from (a) due to the ASE background.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) FWM spectra of the slow light PhC waveguide for different probe wavelengths when launching a constant coupled probe power of 400μW, and a coupled peak pump power of 1W. (b) Associated FWM conversion efficiency (black stars) Pidler(L)/Pprobe(0) versus pump-probe detuning and (solid line) η calculated from Eq. (1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase factor φ versus β2 calculated for 6nm pump-probe detuning, 1W pump power and waveguides of length L = 80μm (except for the black curve, L = 500μm). The red, green, and blue curves correspond to the three PhC waveguides with characteristics summarized in Table 1. Note that the blue curve (β4 = −6.10−46) is shifted towards larger β2 values with respect to the green and red (β4 = 0) curves, and the red curve is shifted towards lower β2 values with respect to the green due to its higher γ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the conversion efficiency predicted by Eq. (1) for 1W pump power for the two waveguides probed in section 3, compared with typical W1 PhC waveguides having either low vg (c/30) and high (negative) dispersion or higher vg (c/10) and lower dispersion. The conversion efficiency η = Pidler(L)/Pprobe(0) and the phase factor φ resulting from dispersion are calculated for 6nm pump-probe detuning. The waveguide length L, the propagation loss αL and second- and fourth-order dispersion β2 and β4 are indicated for the different structures

Equations (2)

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η ( L ) P idler ( L ) P probe ( 0 ) = ( γ P pump ¯ L ) 2 ϕ e α L
ϕ = ( sinh ( g L ) g L ) 2 .

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