Abstract

A novel method for surface wetting characterization based on contact angle measurements is presented. Three dimensional structural imaging of a droplet on a substrate is performed using optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides micrometer resolution images without contact with the sample. An automatic OCT intensity variation based, layer segmentation method was implemented to identify air-droplet, droplet-substrate and air-substrate interfaces. A glycerol droplet on a rough tilted glass substrate was used as a test sample to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method for wetting characterization. Results show that the contact angle of any observation angle can be obtained. In addition, the droplet’s average refractive index can be determined. The proposed method is an interesting and complementary tool for present wetting characterization methods.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 61–89 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. N. K. Winter, D. M. Anderson, and R. J. Braun, “A model for wetting and evaporation of a post-blink precorneal tear film,” Math. Med. Biol. 27, 211–225 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. V. Chasovnikova, V. E. Formazy, V. I. Sergienko, and Yu. F. Maichuk, “Surface Activity and Wetting Effect of Artificial Tear Preparations,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.115, 387–389 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. L. Menzies, R. Rogers, and L. Jones, “In Vitro Contact Angle Analysis and Physical Properties of Blister Pack Solutions of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses,” Eye Contact Lens 36, 10–18 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. J. Lim and Y. Oshida, “Initial contact angle measurements on variously treated dental/medical titanium materials,” Biomed. Mater. Eng. 11, 325–341 (2001).
  6. M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, and D. L. Wise, Biomaterials in orthopedics, (Marcel Dekker, USA, 2004).
  7. J. Bei, W. Wang, Z. Wang, and S. Wang, “Surface Properties and Drug Release Behavior of Polycaprolactone Polyether Blend and Copolymer,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 7, 104–107 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Ardhaoui, M. Nassiri, M. Rubaei, and D. Dowling, “Influence of water contact angle on cell adhesion on polystyrene surfaces,” presented at the NanoTech conference, Boston, USA, 1–5 June (2008).
  9. M. Sun, G. S. Watson, Y. Zheng, J. A. Watson, and A. Liang, “Wetting properties on nanostructured surfaces of cicada wings,” J. Exp. Biol. 212, 3148–3155 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. F. Jaillon, S. Makita, M. Yabusaki, and Y. Yasuno, “Parabolic BM-scan technique for full range Doppler spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 1358–1372 (2010)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17, 15659–15669 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62–66 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “Wetting 101 °†,” Langmuir 25, 14105–14115 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Marmur and E. Bittoun, “When Wenzel and Cassie Are Right: Reconciling Local and Global Considerations,” Langmuir 25, 1277–1281 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “An Attempt to Correct the Faulty Intuition Prepetuated by the Wenzel and Cassie “Laws”,” Langmuir 25, 7249–7255 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Liquid sorption investigation of porous media by optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 4668–4672 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Investigation of swelling behaviour in strongly scattering porous media using optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 2609–2612 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2010 (3)

N. K. Winter, D. M. Anderson, and R. J. Braun, “A model for wetting and evaporation of a post-blink precorneal tear film,” Math. Med. Biol. 27, 211–225 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. L. Menzies, R. Rogers, and L. Jones, “In Vitro Contact Angle Analysis and Physical Properties of Blister Pack Solutions of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses,” Eye Contact Lens 36, 10–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Jaillon, S. Makita, M. Yabusaki, and Y. Yasuno, “Parabolic BM-scan technique for full range Doppler spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 1358–1372 (2010)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17, 15659–15669 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sun, G. S. Watson, Y. Zheng, J. A. Watson, and A. Liang, “Wetting properties on nanostructured surfaces of cicada wings,” J. Exp. Biol. 212, 3148–3155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “Wetting 101 °†,” Langmuir 25, 14105–14115 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marmur and E. Bittoun, “When Wenzel and Cassie Are Right: Reconciling Local and Global Considerations,” Langmuir 25, 1277–1281 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “An Attempt to Correct the Faulty Intuition Prepetuated by the Wenzel and Cassie “Laws”,” Langmuir 25, 7249–7255 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 61–89 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Liquid sorption investigation of porous media by optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 4668–4672 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Investigation of swelling behaviour in strongly scattering porous media using optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 2609–2612 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. J. Lim and Y. Oshida, “Initial contact angle measurements on variously treated dental/medical titanium materials,” Biomed. Mater. Eng. 11, 325–341 (2001).

1996 (1)

J. Bei, W. Wang, Z. Wang, and S. Wang, “Surface Properties and Drug Release Behavior of Polycaprolactone Polyether Blend and Copolymer,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 7, 104–107 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Altobelli, D. E.

M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, and D. L. Wise, Biomaterials in orthopedics, (Marcel Dekker, USA, 2004).

Anderson, D. M.

N. K. Winter, D. M. Anderson, and R. J. Braun, “A model for wetting and evaporation of a post-blink precorneal tear film,” Math. Med. Biol. 27, 211–225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ardhaoui, M.

M. Ardhaoui, M. Nassiri, M. Rubaei, and D. Dowling, “Influence of water contact angle on cell adhesion on polystyrene surfaces,” presented at the NanoTech conference, Boston, USA, 1–5 June (2008).

Bei, J.

J. Bei, W. Wang, Z. Wang, and S. Wang, “Surface Properties and Drug Release Behavior of Polycaprolactone Polyether Blend and Copolymer,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 7, 104–107 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bittoun, E.

A. Marmur and E. Bittoun, “When Wenzel and Cassie Are Right: Reconciling Local and Global Considerations,” Langmuir 25, 1277–1281 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Braun, R. J.

N. K. Winter, D. M. Anderson, and R. J. Braun, “A model for wetting and evaporation of a post-blink precorneal tear film,” Math. Med. Biol. 27, 211–225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brezinski, M. E.

Chasovnikova, L. V.

L. V. Chasovnikova, V. E. Formazy, V. I. Sergienko, and Yu. F. Maichuk, “Surface Activity and Wetting Effect of Artificial Tear Preparations,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.115, 387–389 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dowling, D.

M. Ardhaoui, M. Nassiri, M. Rubaei, and D. Dowling, “Influence of water contact angle on cell adhesion on polystyrene surfaces,” presented at the NanoTech conference, Boston, USA, 1–5 June (2008).

Fabritius, T.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17, 15659–15669 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Investigation of swelling behaviour in strongly scattering porous media using optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 2609–2612 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Liquid sorption investigation of porous media by optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 4668–4672 (2006).
[Crossref]

Formazy, V. E.

L. V. Chasovnikova, V. E. Formazy, V. I. Sergienko, and Yu. F. Maichuk, “Surface Activity and Wetting Effect of Artificial Tear Preparations,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.115, 387–389 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, L.

L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “An Attempt to Correct the Faulty Intuition Prepetuated by the Wenzel and Cassie “Laws”,” Langmuir 25, 7249–7255 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “Wetting 101 °†,” Langmuir 25, 14105–14115 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasirci, V.

M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, and D. L. Wise, Biomaterials in orthopedics, (Marcel Dekker, USA, 2004).

Hee, M. R.

Jaillon, F.

Jones, L.

K. L. Menzies, R. Rogers, and L. Jones, “In Vitro Contact Angle Analysis and Physical Properties of Blister Pack Solutions of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses,” Eye Contact Lens 36, 10–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kumar, G.

G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 61–89 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewandrowski, K.

M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, and D. L. Wise, Biomaterials in orthopedics, (Marcel Dekker, USA, 2004).

Liang, A.

M. Sun, G. S. Watson, Y. Zheng, J. A. Watson, and A. Liang, “Wetting properties on nanostructured surfaces of cicada wings,” J. Exp. Biol. 212, 3148–3155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, Y. J.

Y. J. Lim and Y. Oshida, “Initial contact angle measurements on variously treated dental/medical titanium materials,” Biomed. Mater. Eng. 11, 325–341 (2001).

Maichuk, Yu. F.

L. V. Chasovnikova, V. E. Formazy, V. I. Sergienko, and Yu. F. Maichuk, “Surface Activity and Wetting Effect of Artificial Tear Preparations,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.115, 387–389 (1993).
[Crossref]

Makita, S.

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marmur, A.

A. Marmur and E. Bittoun, “When Wenzel and Cassie Are Right: Reconciling Local and Global Considerations,” Langmuir 25, 1277–1281 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGarthy, T. J.

L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “Wetting 101 °†,” Langmuir 25, 14105–14115 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “An Attempt to Correct the Faulty Intuition Prepetuated by the Wenzel and Cassie “Laws”,” Langmuir 25, 7249–7255 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menzies, K. L.

K. L. Menzies, R. Rogers, and L. Jones, “In Vitro Contact Angle Analysis and Physical Properties of Blister Pack Solutions of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses,” Eye Contact Lens 36, 10–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miura, M.

Myllylä, R.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17, 15659–15669 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Liquid sorption investigation of porous media by optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 4668–4672 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Investigation of swelling behaviour in strongly scattering porous media using optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 2609–2612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nassiri, M.

M. Ardhaoui, M. Nassiri, M. Rubaei, and D. Dowling, “Influence of water contact angle on cell adhesion on polystyrene surfaces,” presented at the NanoTech conference, Boston, USA, 1–5 June (2008).

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oshida, Y.

Y. J. Lim and Y. Oshida, “Initial contact angle measurements on variously treated dental/medical titanium materials,” Biomed. Mater. Eng. 11, 325–341 (2001).

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Prabhu, K. N.

G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 61–89 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, R.

K. L. Menzies, R. Rogers, and L. Jones, “In Vitro Contact Angle Analysis and Physical Properties of Blister Pack Solutions of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses,” Eye Contact Lens 36, 10–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rubaei, M.

M. Ardhaoui, M. Nassiri, M. Rubaei, and D. Dowling, “Influence of water contact angle on cell adhesion on polystyrene surfaces,” presented at the NanoTech conference, Boston, USA, 1–5 June (2008).

Sergienko, V. I.

L. V. Chasovnikova, V. E. Formazy, V. I. Sergienko, and Yu. F. Maichuk, “Surface Activity and Wetting Effect of Artificial Tear Preparations,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.115, 387–389 (1993).
[Crossref]

Southern, J. F.

Sun, M.

M. Sun, G. S. Watson, Y. Zheng, J. A. Watson, and A. Liang, “Wetting properties on nanostructured surfaces of cicada wings,” J. Exp. Biol. 212, 3148–3155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Trantolo, D. J.

M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, and D. L. Wise, Biomaterials in orthopedics, (Marcel Dekker, USA, 2004).

Wang, S.

J. Bei, W. Wang, Z. Wang, and S. Wang, “Surface Properties and Drug Release Behavior of Polycaprolactone Polyether Blend and Copolymer,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 7, 104–107 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

J. Bei, W. Wang, Z. Wang, and S. Wang, “Surface Properties and Drug Release Behavior of Polycaprolactone Polyether Blend and Copolymer,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 7, 104–107 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

J. Bei, W. Wang, Z. Wang, and S. Wang, “Surface Properties and Drug Release Behavior of Polycaprolactone Polyether Blend and Copolymer,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 7, 104–107 (1996).
[Crossref]

Watson, G. S.

M. Sun, G. S. Watson, Y. Zheng, J. A. Watson, and A. Liang, “Wetting properties on nanostructured surfaces of cicada wings,” J. Exp. Biol. 212, 3148–3155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, J. A.

M. Sun, G. S. Watson, Y. Zheng, J. A. Watson, and A. Liang, “Wetting properties on nanostructured surfaces of cicada wings,” J. Exp. Biol. 212, 3148–3155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winter, N. K.

N. K. Winter, D. M. Anderson, and R. J. Braun, “A model for wetting and evaporation of a post-blink precorneal tear film,” Math. Med. Biol. 27, 211–225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wise, D. L.

M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, and D. L. Wise, Biomaterials in orthopedics, (Marcel Dekker, USA, 2004).

Yabusaki, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yaszemski, M. J.

M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, and D. L. Wise, Biomaterials in orthopedics, (Marcel Dekker, USA, 2004).

Zheng, Y.

M. Sun, G. S. Watson, Y. Zheng, J. A. Watson, and A. Liang, “Wetting properties on nanostructured surfaces of cicada wings,” J. Exp. Biol. 212, 3148–3155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 61–89 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Mater. Eng. (1)

Y. J. Lim and Y. Oshida, “Initial contact angle measurements on variously treated dental/medical titanium materials,” Biomed. Mater. Eng. 11, 325–341 (2001).

Eye Contact Lens (1)

K. L. Menzies, R. Rogers, and L. Jones, “In Vitro Contact Angle Analysis and Physical Properties of Blister Pack Solutions of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses,” Eye Contact Lens 36, 10–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Biol. (1)

M. Sun, G. S. Watson, Y. Zheng, J. A. Watson, and A. Liang, “Wetting properties on nanostructured surfaces of cicada wings,” J. Exp. Biol. 212, 3148–3155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Liquid sorption investigation of porous media by optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 4668–4672 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fabritius and R. Myllylä, “Investigation of swelling behaviour in strongly scattering porous media using optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, 2609–2612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (3)

L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “Wetting 101 °†,” Langmuir 25, 14105–14115 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marmur and E. Bittoun, “When Wenzel and Cassie Are Right: Reconciling Local and Global Considerations,” Langmuir 25, 1277–1281 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao and T. J. McGarthy, “An Attempt to Correct the Faulty Intuition Prepetuated by the Wenzel and Cassie “Laws”,” Langmuir 25, 7249–7255 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Math. Med. Biol. (1)

N. K. Winter, D. M. Anderson, and R. J. Braun, “A model for wetting and evaporation of a post-blink precorneal tear film,” Math. Med. Biol. 27, 211–225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polym. Adv. Technol. (1)

J. Bei, W. Wang, Z. Wang, and S. Wang, “Surface Properties and Drug Release Behavior of Polycaprolactone Polyether Blend and Copolymer,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 7, 104–107 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Ardhaoui, M. Nassiri, M. Rubaei, and D. Dowling, “Influence of water contact angle on cell adhesion on polystyrene surfaces,” presented at the NanoTech conference, Boston, USA, 1–5 June (2008).

L. V. Chasovnikova, V. E. Formazy, V. I. Sergienko, and Yu. F. Maichuk, “Surface Activity and Wetting Effect of Artificial Tear Preparations,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.115, 387–389 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, and D. L. Wise, Biomaterials in orthopedics, (Marcel Dekker, USA, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of 3D segmentation of A-D, A-S and D-S interfaces. Steps i–ii are for A-S and D-S segmentation, iv–vi are for baseline identifications and vii–x are for A-D segmentation. Light blue arrows depict information flow during segmentation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three dimensional investigation of a droplet on a solid substrate. Both cross-sectional image and projection image can be calculated for evaluating the liquid wetting and sorption properties.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Contact area between the droplet and substrate, (b) cross-sectional image with identified interfaces, (c) the radius of the droplet as a function of radial angle ϕ, and (d) contact angle as a function radial angle ϕ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Contact angle measurement by conventional goniometric device, (b) cross-section image of substrate with 500 times magnification by SEM, (c) surface image of substrate with 500 times magnification by SEM.

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