Abstract

Using the Z-scan technique with 532 nm 16 picosecond laser pulses, we observe reverse saturable absorption and positive nonlinear refraction of toluene solutions of both C60 and C70. By deducting the positive Kerr nonlinear refraction of the solvent, we notice that the solute molecules contribute to nonlinear refraction of opposite signs: positive for C60 and negative for C70. Attributing nonlinear absorption and refraction of both solutes to cascading one-photon excitations, we illustrate that they satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relation. Accordingly, we attest the signs and magnitudes of nonlinear refraction for both solutes at 532 nm by Kramers-Kronig transform of the corresponding nonlinear absorption spectra.

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2007 (1)

K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, U. Hartnagel, and A. Hirsch, “Nonlinear optical response of water soluble C70 dendrimers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(4-6), 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. D. Cheng, D. S. Wu, H. Zhang, D. G. Chen, and H. X. Wang, “Enhancements of third-order nonlinear optical response in excited state of the fullerenes C60 and C70,” Phys. Rev. B 66(11), 113401-113404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C.-F Li, X.-X. Deng, and Y.-X. Wang, “Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in Multilevel Organic Molecular System,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17(8), 574–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60-and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(15), 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297(5-6), 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Couries, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, “Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60- toluene solutions,” J. Phys. B 29(21), 5033–5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. Li, J. Si, M. Yang, R. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Excited-state nonlinear absorption in multi-energy-level molecular systems,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 569–575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high‐lying excited states using Z-scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

1992 (6)

M. Lee, O. K. Song, J. C. Seo, and D. Kim, “Low-lying electronically excited states of C60 and C70 and measurement of their picosecond transient absorption in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 196(3-4), 325–329 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199(1-2), 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, D. Wang, P. Ye, Y. Li, P. Wu, and D. Zhu, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearities in C60-toluene and C70-toluene solutions,” Opt. Lett. 17(14), 973–975 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutching, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers–Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

K. Tanigaki, T. W. Ebbesen, and S. Kuroshima, “Picosecond and nanosecond studies of the excited state properties of C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 185(3-4), 189–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akkara, J. A.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297(5-6), 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, M. M.

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anz, S. J.

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arbogast, J. W.

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barroso, J.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60-and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(15), 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199(1-2), 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandelik, D. M.

Brant, M. C.

Byrne, H. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callaghan, J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199(1-2), 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cardin, D. J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199(1-2), 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D. G.

W. D. Cheng, D. S. Wu, H. Zhang, D. G. Chen, and H. X. Wang, “Enhancements of third-order nonlinear optical response in excited state of the fullerenes C60 and C70,” Phys. Rev. B 66(11), 113401-113404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. D.

W. D. Cheng, D. S. Wu, H. Zhang, D. G. Chen, and H. X. Wang, “Enhancements of third-order nonlinear optical response in excited state of the fullerenes C60 and C70,” Phys. Rev. B 66(11), 113401-113404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60-and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(15), 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Couries, S.

S. Couries, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, “Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60- toluene solutions,” J. Phys. B 29(21), 5033–5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, U. Hartnagel, and A. Hirsch, “Nonlinear optical response of water soluble C70 dendrimers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(4-6), 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Darmanyan, A. P.

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DeCristofano, B. S.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297(5-6), 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.-X.

C.-F Li, X.-X. Deng, and Y.-X. Wang, “Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in Multilevel Organic Molecular System,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17(8), 574–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, T. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diederich, F. N.

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

S. Couries, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, “Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60- toluene solutions,” J. Phys. B 29(21), 5033–5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dougherty, T. K.

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanigaki, T. W. Ebbesen, and S. Kuroshima, “Picosecond and nanosecond studies of the excited state properties of C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 185(3-4), 189–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Elias, W. E.

Fleitz, P. A.

Foote, C. S.

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Moreno, I.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60-and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(15), 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

D. C. Hutching, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers–Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J. P.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartnagel, U.

K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, U. Hartnagel, and A. Hirsch, “Nonlinear optical response of water soluble C70 dendrimers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(4-6), 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henari, F.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199(1-2), 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, A.

K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, U. Hartnagel, and A. Hirsch, “Nonlinear optical response of water soluble C70 dendrimers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(4-6), 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high‐lying excited states using Z-scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hutching, D. C.

D. C. Hutching, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers–Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iliopoulos, K.

K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, U. Hartnagel, and A. Hirsch, “Nonlinear optical response of water soluble C70 dendrimers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(4-6), 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, M. P.

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(15), 1763–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karna, S. P.

G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

M. Lee, O. K. Song, J. C. Seo, and D. Kim, “Low-lying electronically excited states of C60 and C70 and measurement of their picosecond transient absorption in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 196(3-4), 325–329 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

Kost, A.

Koudoumas, E.

S. Couries, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, “Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60- toluene solutions,” J. Phys. B 29(21), 5033–5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kroto, H. W.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroshima, S.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanigaki, T. W. Ebbesen, and S. Kuroshima, “Picosecond and nanosecond studies of the excited state properties of C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 185(3-4), 189–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leach, S.

S. Couries, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, “Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60- toluene solutions,” J. Phys. B 29(21), 5033–5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, O. K. Song, J. C. Seo, and D. Kim, “Low-lying electronically excited states of C60 and C70 and measurement of their picosecond transient absorption in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 196(3-4), 325–329 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, J. Si, M. Yang, R. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Excited-state nonlinear absorption in multi-energy-level molecular systems,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 569–575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, L. Zhang, R. Wang, Y. Song, and Y. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(8), 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-F

C.-F Li, X.-X. Deng, and Y.-X. Wang, “Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in Multilevel Organic Molecular System,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17(8), 574–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, H. D.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high‐lying excited states using Z-scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. S.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high‐lying excited states using Z-scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Manickam, N.

G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D. G.

Mehendale, S. C.

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(15), 1763–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, S. R.

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(15), 1763–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Orczyk, M. E.

G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pottenger, T.

Prasad, P. N.

G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. N.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297(5-6), 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297(5-6), 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. V.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297(5-6), 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rawat, H. S.

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(15), 1763–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, Y.

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(15), 1763–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saiz, J. L.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60-and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(15), 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. C.

M. Lee, O. K. Song, J. C. Seo, and D. Kim, “Low-lying electronically excited states of C60 and C70 and measurement of their picosecond transient absorption in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 196(3-4), 325–329 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

D. C. Hutching, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers–Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

C. Li, J. Si, M. Yang, R. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Excited-state nonlinear absorption in multi-energy-level molecular systems,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 569–575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, O. K.

M. Lee, O. K. Song, J. C. Seo, and D. Kim, “Low-lying electronically excited states of C60 and C70 and measurement of their picosecond transient absorption in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 196(3-4), 325–329 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Stiel, H.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199(1-2), 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Talapatra, G. B.

G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tanigaki, K.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanigaki, T. W. Ebbesen, and S. Kuroshima, “Picosecond and nanosecond studies of the excited state properties of C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 185(3-4), 189–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, P. C.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L.

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. C. Hutching, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers–Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walton, D. R.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, H. X.

W. D. Cheng, D. S. Wu, H. Zhang, D. G. Chen, and H. X. Wang, “Enhancements of third-order nonlinear optical response in excited state of the fullerenes C60 and C70,” Phys. Rev. B 66(11), 113401-113404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

C. Li, J. Si, M. Yang, R. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Excited-state nonlinear absorption in multi-energy-level molecular systems,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 569–575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, L. Zhang, R. Wang, Y. Song, and Y. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(8), 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y.-X.

C.-F Li, X.-X. Deng, and Y.-X. Wang, “Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in Multilevel Organic Molecular System,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17(8), 574–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high‐lying excited states using Z-scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whetten, R. L.

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. S.

W. D. Cheng, D. S. Wu, H. Zhang, D. G. Chen, and H. X. Wang, “Enhancements of third-order nonlinear optical response in excited state of the fullerenes C60 and C70,” Phys. Rev. B 66(11), 113401-113404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

Wu, T. T.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

C. Li, J. Si, M. Yang, R. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Excited-state nonlinear absorption in multi-energy-level molecular systems,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 569–575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, P.

Zhang, H.

W. D. Cheng, D. S. Wu, H. Zhang, D. G. Chen, and H. X. Wang, “Enhancements of third-order nonlinear optical response in excited state of the fullerenes C60 and C70,” Phys. Rev. B 66(11), 113401-113404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

C. Li, J. Si, M. Yang, R. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Excited-state nonlinear absorption in multi-energy-level molecular systems,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 569–575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, L. Zhang, R. Wang, Y. Song, and Y. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(8), 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Zhu, D.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(15), 1763–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high‐lying excited states using Z-scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (7)

M. Lee, O. K. Song, J. C. Seo, and D. Kim, “Low-lying electronically excited states of C60 and C70 and measurement of their picosecond transient absorption in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 196(3-4), 325–329 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanigaki, T. W. Ebbesen, and S. Kuroshima, “Picosecond and nanosecond studies of the excited state properties of C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 185(3-4), 189–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, U. Hartnagel, and A. Hirsch, “Nonlinear optical response of water soluble C70 dendrimers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(4-6), 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199(1-2), 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297(5-6), 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-F Li, X.-X. Deng, and Y.-X. Wang, “Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in Multilevel Organic Molecular System,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17(8), 574–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

S. Couries, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, “Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60- toluene solutions,” J. Phys. B 29(21), 5033–5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60-and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(15), 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. C. Hutching, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers–Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Li, J. Si, M. Yang, R. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Excited-state nonlinear absorption in multi-energy-level molecular systems,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 569–575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

W. D. Cheng, D. S. Wu, H. Zhang, D. G. Chen, and H. X. Wang, “Enhancements of third-order nonlinear optical response in excited state of the fullerenes C60 and C70,” Phys. Rev. B 66(11), 113401-113404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, 1991), p. 48.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, (Academic Press, 1992), p. 59.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005), p. 4.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975), p.383.

T. M. Liu, M. S. thesis, National Chung-Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan 2002.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The Z-scan apparatus which records the axial and total transmittances as functions of the sample position z.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Z-scan results of C60-toluene (a) and C70-toluene (b): dots for the experimental open-aperture curves, crosses for the experimental closed-aperture curves and solid-line curves for the corresponding theoretical fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The divided Z-scan results of C60-toluene (a) and C70-toluene (b): dots for the experimental curves and solid-line curves for the theoretical fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The scheme of the five-energy-band (S0, S1, S2, T1 and T2) model. Upward-pointing arrows denote optical excitations; wiggly lines indicate nonradiative relaxations; and downward-pointing arrows show radiative relaxation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorptive cross sections as functions of λ for C60-toluene (a) and C70-toluene (b): solid-line curves for the |0)S1 state and dashes for S0. λ indicates the wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Nonlinear refractive coefficient ( γ S1 γ S0 ) calculated as a function of λ for C60-toluene (a) and C70-toluene (b).

Equations (36)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 0 ( z , ρ , t ) = Re { w 0 w ( z ) × E 00 × exp [ ρ 2 w 2 ( z ) ] × exp [ ( ( t z / c ) 2 τ ) 2 ] × exp [ i ( k ρ 2 2 R ( z ) tan 1 ( z z 0 ) ) ] × exp [ i ( k z ω t ) ] } .
I 0 ( z , ρ , t ) = [ w 0 2 w 2 ( z ) ] × I 00 × exp ( 2 ρ 2 w 2 ( z ) ) × exp [ ( t τ ) 2 ]
ϕ 0 ( z , ρ ) = { [ k ρ 2 2 R ( z ) tan 1 ( z z 0 ) ] } .
I 00 = ε 0 c 2 | E 00 | 2 ,
I 00 = 2 ε ng π 3 / 2 w 0 2 τ .
( E ( r , t ) ) 2 E ( r , t ) + 1 c 2 2 E ( r , t )   t 2 = μ 2 P ( r , t )   t 2 ,
P ( 1 ) ( r , t ) = ε 0 R ( 1 ) ( t ) E ( r , t ) ε 0 R ( 1 ) ( t t ) × E ( r , t ) d t .
P ( 1 ) ( r , ω ) = ε 0 χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) × E ( r , ω ) ,
R ( 1 ) ( t ) = R ( 1 ) ( t ) × s t e p ( t )
χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) = χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) [ δ ( ω ) 2 + 1 i 2 π ω ] = χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) 2 + 1 i 2 π P . V . χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) ω ω d ω ,
χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) = 1 i π P . V . χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) ω ω d ω .
χ Re ( 1 ) ( ω ) = 1 π P . V . χ Im ( 1 ) ( ω ) ω ω d ω = 2 π P . V . 0 ω χ Im ( 1 ) ( ω ) ω 2 ω 2 d ω
χ Im ( 1 ) ( ω ) = 1 π P . V . χ Re ( 1 ) ( ω ) ω ω d ω = 2 π P . V . 0 ω χ Re ( 1 ) ( ω ) ω 2 ω 2 d ω .
E ( r , t ) = Re { E t ( r , ω ) × exp [ i ( k z ω t ) ] } ,
P ( 1 ) ( r , t ) = Re { P t ( 1 ) ( r , ω ) × exp [ i ( k z ω t ) ] } ,
2 E t ( r , ω ) z 2 2 i k E t ( r , ω ) z 1 c 2 [ 2 E t ( r , ω ) t 2 + 2 i ω E t ( r , ω ) t ] = μ [ 2 P t ( 1 ) ( r , ω ) t 2 + 2 i ω P t ( 1 ) ( r , ω ) t ω 2 P t ( 1 ) ( r , ω ) ]
2 i k E t ( r , ω ) z + 2 i ω c 2 E t ( r , ω ) t = ω 2 χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) c 2 E t ( r , ω ) ,
E t ( r , ω ) z = i ω 2 χ ( 1 ) ( ω ) 2 c 2 k E t ( r , ω ) .
I z = χ Im ( 1 ) ( ω ) ω c I = α ( 1 ) ( ω ) I
ϕ z = χ Re ( 1 ) ( ω ) ω 2 c = k Δ n ( 1 ) ( ω ) ,
χ Re ( ω ) = 1 ε 0 [ 0 1 2 ( ω ω 0 1 ) Γ 0 1 2 + ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 N S0 ( t ) + 1 2 2 ( ω ω 1 2 ) Γ 1 2 2 + ( ω ω 1 2 ) 2 N S1 ( t ) ]
χ Im ( ω ) = 1 ε 0 [ 0 1 2 Γ 0 1 Γ 0 1 2 + ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 N S0 ( t ) + 1 2 2 Γ 1 2 Γ 1 2 2 + ( ω ω 1 2 ) 2 N S1 ( t ) ] .
I ( t ) z = χ Im ( ω ) ω c I ( t ) = α ( ω ) I ( t ) = { σ S0 ( ω ) N S0 ( ) + [ σ S1 ( ω ) σ S0 ( ω ) ] N S1 ( t ) } I ( t )
ϕ z = k Δ n tot ( ω ) = k Δ n ( ω ) k n 2 ( ω ) I ( t ) = γ S0 ( ω ) N S0 ( ) [ γ S1 ( ω ) γ S0 ( ω ) ] N S1 ( t ) k n 2 ( ω ) I ( t ) ,
σ S0 ( ω ) = ω 0 1 2 Γ 0 1 c ε 0 [ Γ 0 1 2 + ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 ] ,
σ S1 ( ω ) = ω 1 2 2 Γ 1 2 c ε 0 [ Γ 1 2 2 + ( ω ω 1 2 ) 2 ] ,
γ S 0 ( ω ) = ω 0 1 2 ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 c ε 0 [ Γ 0 1 2 + ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 ] ,
γ S1 ( ω ) = ω 1 2 2 ( ω ω 1 2 ) 2 c ε 0 [ Γ 1 2 2 + ( ω ω 1 2 ) 2 ] .
d N S 0 ( t ) d t = σ S 0 ( ω ) N S0 ( t ) I ( t ) ω
d N S1 ( t ) d t = σ S 0 ( ω ) N S0 ( t ) I ( t ) ω .
χ Re ( 1 ) ( ω ) = 1 ε 0 0 1 2 ( ω ω 0 1 ) Γ 0 1 2 + ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 N S0 ( ) ,
χ Im ( 1 ) ( ω ) = 1 ε 0 0 1 2 Γ 0 1 Γ 0 1 2 + ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 N S0 ( ) ,
χ Re ( NL ) ( ω ) = 1 ε 0 [ 1 2 2 ( ω ω 1 2 ) Γ 1 2 2 + ( ω ω 1 2 ) 2 0 1 2 ( ω ω 0 1 ) Γ 0 1 2 + ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 ] N S1 ( t ) ,
χ Im ( NL ) ( ω ) = 1 ε 0 [ 1 2 2 Γ 1 2 Γ 1 2 2 + ( ω ω 1 2 ) 2 0 1 2 Γ 0 1 Γ 0 1 2 + ( ω ω 0 1 ) 2 ] N S1 ( t ) .
Δ n ( NL ) ( ω ) = c π P . V . 0 α (NL) ( ω ) ω 2 ω 2 d ω .
γ S1 ( ω ) γ S0 ( ω ) = c k π P . V . 0 [ σ S1 ( ω ) σ S0 ( ω ) ] ω 2 ω 2 d ω .

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