Abstract

We demonstrate an all-optical switch based on a waveguide-embedded 1D photonic crystal cavity fabricated in silicon-on-insulator technology. Light at the telecom wavelength is modulated at high-speed by control pulses in the near infrared, harnessing the plasma dispersion effect. The actual absorbed switching power required for a 3 dB modulation depth is measured to be as low as 6 fJ. While the switch-on time is on the order of a few picoseconds, the relaxation time is almost 500 ps and limited by the lifetime of the charge carriers.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (4)

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Belotti, M. Galli, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, G. Guizzetti, A. R. Md Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “All-optical switching in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire nano-cavities,” Opt. Express 18, 1450–1461 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 3582–3591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Carrier diffusion and recombination in photonic crystal nanocavity optical switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1396–1403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Belotti, J. F. Galisteo Lòpez, S. De Angelis, M. Galli, I. Maksymov, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “All-optical switching in 2D silicon photonic crystals with low loss waveguides and optical cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 11624–11636 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. R. Md Zain, M. Gnan, H. M. H. Chong, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Tapered photonic crystal microcavities embedded in photonic wire waveguides with large resonance quality-factor and high transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 6–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Applied Physics Letters 92, 151104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. Rodier, P. Lalanne, and D. Peyrade, “Ultra-high Q/V Fabry-Perot microcavity on SOI substrate,” Optics Express 15, 16090–16096 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Först, J. Niehusmann, T. Plötzing, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, and H. Kurz, “High-speed all-optical switching in ion-implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2046–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

N. Moll, R. Harbers, R. F. Mahrt, and G. Bona, “Integrated all-optical switch in a cross-waveguide geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

S. M. Csutak, S. Dakshina-Murthy, and J. C. Campbell, “CMOS-compatible planar silicon waveguide-grating-coupler photodetectors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 477–480 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical switching on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2867–2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

Baks, C. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical switching on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2867–2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belotti, M.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. H. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78, 212–217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

Bona, G.

N. Moll, R. Harbers, R. F. Mahrt, and G. Bona, “Integrated all-optical switch in a cross-waveguide geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, Ö.

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Budd, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

S. M. Csutak, S. Dakshina-Murthy, and J. C. Campbell, “CMOS-compatible planar silicon waveguide-grating-coupler photodetectors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 477–480 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Charvolin, T.

P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. Rodier, P. Lalanne, and D. Peyrade, “Ultra-high Q/V Fabry-Perot microcavity on SOI substrate,” Optics Express 15, 16090–16096 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chiniwalla, P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

A. R. Md Zain, M. Gnan, H. M. H. Chong, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Tapered photonic crystal microcavities embedded in photonic wire waveguides with large resonance quality-factor and high transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 6–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Csutak, S. M.

S. M. Csutak, S. Dakshina-Murthy, and J. C. Campbell, “CMOS-compatible planar silicon waveguide-grating-coupler photodetectors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 477–480 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dakshina-Murthy, S.

S. M. Csutak, S. Dakshina-Murthy, and J. C. Campbell, “CMOS-compatible planar silicon waveguide-grating-coupler photodetectors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 477–480 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, S.

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Belotti, M. Galli, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, G. Guizzetti, A. R. Md Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “All-optical switching in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire nano-cavities,” Opt. Express 18, 1450–1461 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Md Zain, M. Gnan, H. M. H. Chong, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Tapered photonic crystal microcavities embedded in photonic wire waveguides with large resonance quality-factor and high transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 6–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Applied Physics Letters 92, 151104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efavi, J. K.

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. H. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78, 212–217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, M. Soljačić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2506–2508 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Picard, E.

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P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. Rodier, P. Lalanne, and D. Peyrade, “Ultra-high Q/V Fabry-Perot microcavity on SOI substrate,” Optics Express 15, 16090–16096 (2007).
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A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
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Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
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Sandoghdar, V.

Sato, T.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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Schmidt, B.

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Applied Physics Letters 92, 151104 (2008).
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Schmidt, B. S.

Schönenberger, S.

Schow, C. L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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Schuster, C.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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Shinojima, H.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
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Shinya, A.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
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T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
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T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “Fast bistable all-optical switch and memory on a silicon photonic crystal on-chip,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2575–2577 (2005).
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M. Belotti, M. Galli, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, G. Guizzetti, A. R. Md Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “All-optical switching in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire nano-cavities,” Opt. Express 18, 1450–1461 (2010).
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A. R. Md Zain, M. Gnan, H. M. H. Chong, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Tapered photonic crystal microcavities embedded in photonic wire waveguides with large resonance quality-factor and high transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 6–8 (2008).
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Tan, M. R.

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K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
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T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “Fast bistable all-optical switch and memory on a silicon photonic crystal on-chip,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2575–2577 (2005).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
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T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Carrier diffusion and recombination in photonic crystal nanocavity optical switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1396–1403 (2008).
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J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
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Vahala, K. J.

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A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
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J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
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T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Optics Express (1)

P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. Rodier, P. Lalanne, and D. Peyrade, “Ultra-high Q/V Fabry-Perot microcavity on SOI substrate,” Optics Express 15, 16090–16096 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press Inc, 1997).

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, Silicon Photonics: The State of the Art, (Wiley, 2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic top-view of the 1D photonic crystal micro-cavity, showing all the geometric parameters that are optimized. (b) Cross-section of the micro-cavity with the electric field component Ey of the resonance mode obtained from 3D FDTD simulations. (c) SEM image of the fabricated device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear optical transmission spectrum through the device with N = 6. The inset shows a high-resolution measurement of the resonance and the Lorentzian fit which is used to obtain the quality factor and the center wavelength of the resonance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermo-optic red-shift of the resonance wavelength from which the optical confinement within the silicon can be deduced.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the pump and probe setup used to measure the switching dynamics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission spectra before (black) and after (red) optical pumping with a 2.8 pJ-pulse. The smooth solid lines are Lorentzian fits to the resonance peak from which the center wavelength and the quality factor are extracted. (b) Shift of the resonance wavelength Δλ as a function of pump pulse energy E. The solid lines are linear (red) and quadratic (green) fits to the data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Time-resolved transmission spectrum showing the wavelength λ as a function of the time delay between probe and pump pulse. (b) Wavelength shift of the resonance as a function of the time delay.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Transmission spectrum of the switching process with very high time resolution. (b) Analysis of the transient intensity to extract the fall and rise time at the original resonance wavelength and the shifted resonance, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Geometric parameters of the 1D photonic crystal micro-cavity obtained through optimization using FDTD

Equations (3)

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τ = Q λ 2 π c
Δ λ λ = σ Δ n n .
Δ n = 8.8 × 10 22 n e 8.5 × 10 18 n h 0.8 .

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