Abstract

In this paper, a method is proposed for highly precisely simulating the optical behavior of a light guide plate, which has microstructures of rough texture and rugged edges thereon. By adopting the ‘equivalent medium-immersed measurement’ to establish precise optical characteristic of the light guide plate, the simulated results of luminance distribution are much accordant with experimental measurement. This method will be useful in luminance uniformity evaluation and hot-spot check in advance, and it will greatly contribute to save time and cost of product development.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. K. Käläntär, “Functional light-guide plate for backlight unit,” SID99 Technical Digest No. 34.2, 764–767 (1999).
  2. K. Käläntär, “Modified functional light-guide plate for backlighting transmissive LCDs,” SID J. 11(4), 641–645 (2003).
  3. T. Okumura, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, M. Horiguchi, and H. Suzuki, “Highly-efficient backlight for liquid crystal display having no optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2515–2517 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Feng, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and S. S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6019 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Aoyama, A. Funamoto, and K. Imanaka, “Hybrid normal-reverse prism coupler for light-emitting diode backlight systems,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7273–7278 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Imai and I. Fujieda, “Illumination uniformity of an edge-lit backlight with emission angle control,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11969–11974 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Miyakawa Co, Ltd., “Optical element with light extracting dots and display device using same,” US Patent 7108415 (2006).
  8. C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens Arrays by Direct-Writing Inkjet Print for LCD Backlighting Applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(5), 147–151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. H. Wu and C. H. Lu, “Fabrication of an LCD light guide plate using closed die hot embossing,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(3), 035006 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. S. Jang, M. W. Cho, and D. S. Park, “Micro Dot Patterning on the Light Guide Panel Using Powder Blasting,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(2), 877–885 (2008).
  11. J. S. Kim, Y. B. Ko, C. J. Hwang, J. D. Kim, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of micro injection mold with modified LIGA micro-lens pattern and its application to LCD-BLU,” Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 19, 165–169 (2007).
  12. G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. G. Chang and Y. B. Fang, “Dot-pattern design of a light guide in an edge-lit backlight using a regional partition approach,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. B. Lee, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Yoon, and D. H. Choi, “Design optimization for optical patterns in a lightguide panel to improve illuminance and uniformity of the liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Eng. 48(2), 024001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Corp, http://www.optis-world.com/

2009 (2)

C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens Arrays by Direct-Writing Inkjet Print for LCD Backlighting Applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(5), 147–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Lee, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Yoon, and D. H. Choi, “Design optimization for optical patterns in a lightguide panel to improve illuminance and uniformity of the liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Eng. 48(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C. H. Wu and C. H. Lu, “Fabrication of an LCD light guide plate using closed die hot embossing,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(3), 035006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, M. W. Cho, and D. S. Park, “Micro Dot Patterning on the Light Guide Panel Using Powder Blasting,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(2), 877–885 (2008).

K. Imai and I. Fujieda, “Illumination uniformity of an edge-lit backlight with emission angle control,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11969–11974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. G. Chang and Y. B. Fang, “Dot-pattern design of a light guide in an edge-lit backlight using a regional partition approach,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, Y. B. Ko, C. J. Hwang, J. D. Kim, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of micro injection mold with modified LIGA micro-lens pattern and its application to LCD-BLU,” Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 19, 165–169 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Feng, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and S. S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. Käläntär, “Modified functional light-guide plate for backlighting transmissive LCDs,” SID J. 11(4), 641–645 (2003).

T. Okumura, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, M. Horiguchi, and H. Suzuki, “Highly-efficient backlight for liquid crystal display having no optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2515–2517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.-H.

G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, S.

Back, C. I. I.

G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. G.

J. G. Chang and Y. B. Fang, “Dot-pattern design of a light guide in an edge-lit backlight using a regional partition approach,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M. W.

H. S. Jang, M. W. Cho, and D. S. Park, “Micro Dot Patterning on the Light Guide Panel Using Powder Blasting,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(2), 877–885 (2008).

Choi, D. H.

G. B. Lee, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Yoon, and D. H. Choi, “Design optimization for optical patterns in a lightguide panel to improve illuminance and uniformity of the liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Eng. 48(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. T.

J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. S.

D. Feng, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and S. S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y. B.

J. G. Chang and Y. B. Fang, “Dot-pattern design of a light guide in an edge-lit backlight using a regional partition approach,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

D. Feng, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and S. S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujieda, I.

Funamoto, A.

Horiguchi, M.

T. Okumura, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, M. Horiguchi, and H. Suzuki, “Highly-efficient backlight for liquid crystal display having no optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2515–2517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. H.

C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens Arrays by Direct-Writing Inkjet Print for LCD Backlighting Applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(5), 147–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, C. J.

J. S. Kim, Y. B. Ko, C. J. Hwang, J. D. Kim, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of micro injection mold with modified LIGA micro-lens pattern and its application to LCD-BLU,” Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 19, 165–169 (2007).

Imai, K.

Imanaka, K.

Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, M. W. Cho, and D. S. Park, “Micro Dot Patterning on the Light Guide Panel Using Powder Blasting,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(2), 877–885 (2008).

Jeong, J. H.

G. B. Lee, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Yoon, and D. H. Choi, “Design optimization for optical patterns in a lightguide panel to improve illuminance and uniformity of the liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Eng. 48(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G. F.

D. Feng, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and S. S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joo, M. G.

J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Käläntär, K.

K. Käläntär, “Modified functional light-guide plate for backlighting transmissive LCDs,” SID J. 11(4), 641–645 (2003).

Kang, H. J.

G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-D.

G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. D.

J. S. Kim, Y. B. Ko, C. J. Hwang, J. D. Kim, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of micro injection mold with modified LIGA micro-lens pattern and its application to LCD-BLU,” Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 19, 165–169 (2007).

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, Y. B. Ko, C. J. Hwang, J. D. Kim, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of micro injection mold with modified LIGA micro-lens pattern and its application to LCD-BLU,” Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 19, 165–169 (2007).

Kim, Y. H.

J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ko, Y. B.

J. S. Kim, Y. B. Ko, C. J. Hwang, J. D. Kim, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of micro injection mold with modified LIGA micro-lens pattern and its application to LCD-BLU,” Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 19, 165–169 (2007).

Koike, Y.

T. Okumura, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, M. Horiguchi, and H. Suzuki, “Highly-efficient backlight for liquid crystal display having no optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2515–2517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. B.

G. B. Lee, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Yoon, and D. H. Choi, “Design optimization for optical patterns in a lightguide panel to improve illuminance and uniformity of the liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Eng. 48(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I. W.

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. Y.

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. W.

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T. K.

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. H.

C. H. Wu and C. H. Lu, “Fabrication of an LCD light guide plate using closed die hot embossing,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(3), 035006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, T.

T. Okumura, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, M. Horiguchi, and H. Suzuki, “Highly-efficient backlight for liquid crystal display having no optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2515–2517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. S.

H. S. Jang, M. W. Cho, and D. S. Park, “Micro Dot Patterning on the Light Guide Panel Using Powder Blasting,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(2), 877–885 (2008).

Song, C. K.

G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

T. Okumura, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, M. Horiguchi, and H. Suzuki, “Highly-efficient backlight for liquid crystal display having no optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2515–2517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tagaya, A.

T. Okumura, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, M. Horiguchi, and H. Suzuki, “Highly-efficient backlight for liquid crystal display having no optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2515–2517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. H.

C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens Arrays by Direct-Writing Inkjet Print for LCD Backlighting Applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(5), 147–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uh, J.

J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. H.

C. H. Wu and C. H. Lu, “Fabrication of an LCD light guide plate using closed die hot embossing,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(3), 035006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. B.

D. Feng, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and S. S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K. H.

J. S. Kim, Y. B. Ko, C. J. Hwang, J. D. Kim, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of micro injection mold with modified LIGA micro-lens pattern and its application to LCD-BLU,” Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 19, 165–169 (2007).

Yoon, S. J.

G. B. Lee, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Yoon, and D. H. Choi, “Design optimization for optical patterns in a lightguide panel to improve illuminance and uniformity of the liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Eng. 48(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. H.

C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens Arrays by Direct-Writing Inkjet Print for LCD Backlighting Applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(5), 147–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Okumura, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, M. Horiguchi, and H. Suzuki, “Highly-efficient backlight for liquid crystal display having no optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2515–2517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and S. S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6019 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ISIJ Int. (1)

J. Uh, J. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. T. Choi, M. G. Joo, and C. S. Lim, “Laser Engraving of Micro-patterns on Roll Surfaces,” ISIJ Int. 42(11), 1266–1272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens Arrays by Direct-Writing Inkjet Print for LCD Backlighting Applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(5), 147–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

C. H. Wu and C. H. Lu, “Fabrication of an LCD light guide plate using closed die hot embossing,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(3), 035006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. (1)

J. S. Kim, Y. B. Ko, C. J. Hwang, J. D. Kim, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of micro injection mold with modified LIGA micro-lens pattern and its application to LCD-BLU,” Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 19, 165–169 (2007).

Opt. Eng. (3)

J. G. Chang and Y. B. Fang, “Dot-pattern design of a light guide in an edge-lit backlight using a regional partition approach,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Lee, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Yoon, and D. H. Choi, “Design optimization for optical patterns in a lightguide panel to improve illuminance and uniformity of the liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Eng. 48(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lee, T. K. Lim, Y. W. Lee, and I. W. Lee, “Fast ray-tracing methods for LCD backlight simulation using the characteristics of the pattern,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 014004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B (1)

G.-D. Kim, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Ahn, C. K. Song, C. I. I. Back, and C. S. Lee, “Laser-marking process for liquid-crystal display light guide panel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B 219(7), 565–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

H. S. Jang, M. W. Cho, and D. S. Park, “Micro Dot Patterning on the Light Guide Panel Using Powder Blasting,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(2), 877–885 (2008).

SID J. (1)

K. Käläntär, “Modified functional light-guide plate for backlighting transmissive LCDs,” SID J. 11(4), 641–645 (2003).

Other (3)

Miyakawa Co, Ltd., “Optical element with light extracting dots and display device using same,” US Patent 7108415 (2006).

O. Corp, http://www.optis-world.com/

K. Käläntär, “Functional light-guide plate for backlight unit,” SID99 Technical Digest No. 34.2, 764–767 (1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Edge-lit BLU configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The crater-like microstructure is formed by laser etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The photograph of hot-spot phenomenon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The schematic configuration for (a) BSDF and (b) equivalent medium-immersed measurement

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The luminance distribution in the entrance region.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

L/H contrast at sampling lines in the entrance region.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The luminance uniformity across long stripe of the LGP.

Equations (1)

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F ( θ i , ϕ i ; θ e , ϕ e ) = Ψ ( θ i , ϕ i ; θ e , ϕ e ) r 2 sin θ Δ θ Δ ϕ 0 π / 2 0 2 π Ψ ( θ i , ϕ i ; θ e , ϕ e ) r 2 sin θ d θ d ϕ ,

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