Abstract

Vertical slots are used to reduce the nonlinearity of silicon-on-insulator waveguides. In properly designed slot waveguides, approximately 50% of the optical power can be confined in the air-slot and air-cladding region. Compared with a strip waveguide, a factor greater than 15 times more reduction in the real part of nonlinear coefficient can be achieved in the 100-nm wavelength range. In addition, vertical-slot waveguides exhibit large negative chromatic dispersion, which will induce phase mismatch and further suppress nonlinear parametric effects.

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2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411(6841), 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Afshar V, S.

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Andrejco, M. J.

Armaroli, A.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R. G.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bandaru, P. R.

Barrios, C. A.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellanca, G.

Benech, P.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M. K.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. L.

Darmawan, S.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delong, K. W.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

H. G. Yoo, Y. J. Fu, D. Riley, J. H. Shin, and P. M. Fauchet, “Birefringence and optical power confinement in horizontal multi-slot waveguides made of Si and SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8623–8628 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. J.

Gaeta, A. L.

Hainberger, R.

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Landobasa, Y. M.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Michel, J.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, P. P.

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411(6841), 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, V.

Monro, T. M.

Mookherjea, S.

Morand, A.

Muellner, P.

Okawachi, Y.

Painter, O. J.

Panepucci, R. R.

Piredda, G.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riley, D.

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saifi, M. A.

Sharping, J. E.

Shin, J. H.

Stark, J. B.

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411(6841), 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Howe, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

Wellenzohn, M.

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao-Li, Y.

Xu, C.

Xu, Q. F.

Yang, S. H.

Yoo, H. G.

Yue, Y.

Zhang, J.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411(6841), 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sections of strip, single-vertical-slot and double-vertical-slot waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power distributions of the quasi-TE modes in strip, single-vertical-slot and double-vertical-slot waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Power distributions (b) Effective refractive index and real part of nonlinear coefficient as a function of slot width in a single-vertical-slot waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real part of nonlinear coefficient vs. slot width and slot position variation at 1550 nm (single-vertical-slot waveguide).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Power distributions (b) Effective refractive index and real part of nonlinear coefficient as a function of the slot spacing in a double-vertical-slot waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Real part of nonlinear coefficient as a function of the wavelength in strip, single-vertical-slot and double-vertical-slot waveguides (s = 150 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Chromatic dispersion as a function of the wavelength in (a) a single-vertical-slot waveguide and (b) a double-vertical-slot waveguide (d = 50 nm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nonlinearity of the quasi-TE modes in the silicon strip and vertical-slot waveguides at 1550 nm

Metrics