Abstract

Vertical slots are used to reduce the nonlinearity of silicon-on-insulator waveguides. In properly designed slot waveguides, approximately 50% of the optical power can be confined in the air-slot and air-cladding region. Compared with a strip waveguide, a factor greater than 15 times more reduction in the real part of nonlinear coefficient can be achieved in the 100-nm wavelength range. In addition, vertical-slot waveguides exhibit large negative chromatic dispersion, which will induce phase mismatch and further suppress nonlinear parametric effects.

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2010

2009

2008

2007

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2001

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411(6841), 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

Afshar V, S.

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Andrejco, M. J.

Armaroli, A.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R. G.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bandaru, P. R.

Barrios, C. A.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellanca, G.

Benech, P.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M. K.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. L.

Darmawan, S.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delong, K. W.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

H. G. Yoo, Y. J. Fu, D. Riley, J. H. Shin, and P. M. Fauchet, “Birefringence and optical power confinement in horizontal multi-slot waveguides made of Si and SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8623–8628 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. J.

Gaeta, A. L.

Hainberger, R.

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Landobasa, Y. M.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Michel, J.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, P. P.

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411(6841), 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, V.

Monro, T. M.

Mookherjea, S.

Morand, A.

Muellner, P.

Okawachi, Y.

Painter, O. J.

Panepucci, R. R.

Piredda, G.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riley, D.

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saifi, M. A.

Sharping, J. E.

Shin, J. H.

Stark, J. B.

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411(6841), 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Howe, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

Wellenzohn, M.

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao-Li, Y.

Xu, C.

Xu, Q. F.

Yang, S. H.

Yoo, H. G.

Yue, Y.

Zhang, J.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 883–890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and M. K. Chin, “Resonance Enhancement in Silicon-on-Insulator-Based Two-Ring Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1560–1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411(6841), 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sections of strip, single-vertical-slot and double-vertical-slot waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power distributions of the quasi-TE modes in strip, single-vertical-slot and double-vertical-slot waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Power distributions (b) Effective refractive index and real part of nonlinear coefficient as a function of slot width in a single-vertical-slot waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real part of nonlinear coefficient vs. slot width and slot position variation at 1550 nm (single-vertical-slot waveguide).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Power distributions (b) Effective refractive index and real part of nonlinear coefficient as a function of the slot spacing in a double-vertical-slot waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Real part of nonlinear coefficient as a function of the wavelength in strip, single-vertical-slot and double-vertical-slot waveguides (s = 150 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Chromatic dispersion as a function of the wavelength in (a) a single-vertical-slot waveguide and (b) a double-vertical-slot waveguide (d = 50 nm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nonlinearity of the quasi-TE modes in the silicon strip and vertical-slot waveguides at 1550 nm

Metrics