Abstract

We study saturable absorption and the nonlinear contribution to the refractive index of metal-nanoparticle composites by using a modified self-consistent Maxwell-Garnett formalism for spherical nanoparticles and a generalization of the discrete-dipole formalism for particles of arbitrary shape and size. The results for fused silica doped with silver nanoparticles show that the saturation of loss of the composites is strongest near the surface plasmon resonance and the saturation intensity is in the range of 10 MW/cm2. The nonlinear refraction index decrease with increasing intensity and its sign depends on frequency and filling factor. The predictions show that metal-nanoparticle composites can be used for mode locking of lasers in a broad spectral range down to 400 nm, where attractive saturable absorbers are still missing.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

2009

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fibe laser with a graphenepolymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, W.-J. Kim, J. Heo, S. M. Ma, J. Austin, W. S. Yun, S. S. Jung, S. W. Han, B. Tabibi, and D . Temple, "Optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticles and Au/Ag coreshells," Opt. Lett. 34, 307-309 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, "Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 33, 729-731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, "Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurura and G. Bryant, "Metal nanoparticle plasmonics," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136-159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskii, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear absorption at visible light in silicate glasses doped with copper nanoparticles," Quantum Electron. 33, 1081-1084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Wundke, S. Poetting, J. Auxier, A. Schuelzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dotdoped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, N. Sandhyarari, and T. Pradeep, "Picosecond optical nonlinearity in monolayer-protected gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B 62, 13160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Kyong and M. Lee, "Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique," Opt. Commun. 171, 145-148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in Maxwell Garnett model," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614-1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

N. C. Kothari, "Effective-medium theory of a nonlinear composite medium using the T-matrix approach: Exact results for spherical grains," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4486-4492 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguilo, M.

Aizpurura, J.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurura and G. Bryant, "Metal nanoparticle plasmonics," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136-159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aus der Au, J

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Austin, J.

Auxier, J.

K. Wundke, S. Poetting, J. Auxier, A. Schuelzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dotdoped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fibe laser with a graphenepolymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

K. Wundke, S. Poetting, J. Auxier, A. Schuelzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dotdoped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, E.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, "Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurura and G. Bryant, "Metal nanoparticle plasmonics," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136-159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheang-Wong, J. C.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W. B.

Crespo-Sosa, A.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

Diaz, F.

Draine, B. T.

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falcao-Filho, E. L.

Fischer, G.

Flatau, P. J.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Galembeck, A

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskii, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear absorption at visible light in silicate glasses doped with copper nanoparticles," Quantum Electron. 33, 1081-1084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D. A.

Griebner, U.

Gurudas, U.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, "Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. W.

Heiroth, D. M.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, "Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

Herrmann, J.

Hoenninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

Ji, W.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. S.

Kaertner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

Kim, W.-J.

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kothari, N. C.

N. C. Kothari, "Effective-medium theory of a nonlinear composite medium using the T-matrix approach: Exact results for spherical grains," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4486-4492 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, G. R.

R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, N. Sandhyarari, and T. Pradeep, "Picosecond optical nonlinearity in monolayer-protected gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B 62, 13160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kyong, M.

M. Kyong and M. Lee, "Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique," Opt. Commun. 171, 145-148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-Y.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Kyong and M. Lee, "Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique," Opt. Commun. 171, 145-148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Lippert, T.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, "Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fibe laser with a graphenepolymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Suarez, A.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. M.

Mateos, X.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, J.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mi, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olibier, A.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, M. M

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurura and G. Bryant, "Metal nanoparticle plasmonics," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136-159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Wundke, S. Poetting, J. Auxier, A. Schuelzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dotdoped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, N. Sandhyarari, and T. Pradeep, "Picosecond optical nonlinearity in monolayer-protected gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B 62, 13160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poetting, S.

K. Wundke, S. Poetting, J. Auxier, A. Schuelzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dotdoped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pradeep, T.

R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, N. Sandhyarari, and T. Pradeep, "Picosecond optical nonlinearity in monolayer-protected gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B 62, 13160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, M. C.

Rangel-Rojo, R.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rivier, S.

Rodriguez-Fernandez, L.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Iglesias, V.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

Ryasnyanskii, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskii, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear absorption at visible light in silicate glasses doped with copper nanoparticles," Quantum Electron. 33, 1081-1084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandhyarari, N.

R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, N. Sandhyarari, and T. Pradeep, "Picosecond optical nonlinearity in monolayer-protected gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B 62, 13160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.

Schuelzgen, A.

K. Wundke, S. Poetting, J. Auxier, A. Schuelzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dotdoped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. T.

Silva-Rereyra, H. G.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in Maxwell Garnett model," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614-1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. D.

Steinmeyer, G.

Stepanov, A. L.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskii, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear absorption at visible light in silicate glasses doped with copper nanoparticles," Quantum Electron. 33, 1081-1084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tabibi, B.

Tang, D.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fibe laser with a graphenepolymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D

Usmanov, T.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskii, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear absorption at visible light in silicate glasses doped with copper nanoparticles," Quantum Electron. 33, 1081-1084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, "Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wundke, K.

K. Wundke, S. Poetting, J. Auxier, A. Schuelzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dotdoped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Yim, J. H.

Yun, W. S.

Zarbin, A. J. G

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fibe laser with a graphenepolymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fibe laser with a graphenepolymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fibe laser with a graphenepolymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wundke, S. Poetting, J. Auxier, A. Schuelzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dotdoped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kaertner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hoenninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, "Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Photon. Rev.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurura and G. Bryant, "Metal nanoparticle plasmonics," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136-159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Kyong and M. Lee, "Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique," Opt. Commun. 171, 145-148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Olibier, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Rereyra, "Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 282, 1909-1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in Maxwell Garnett model," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614-1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Kothari, "Effective-medium theory of a nonlinear composite medium using the T-matrix approach: Exact results for spherical grains," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4486-4492 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, N. Sandhyarari, and T. Pradeep, "Picosecond optical nonlinearity in monolayer-protected gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B 62, 13160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskii, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear absorption at visible light in silicate glasses doped with copper nanoparticles," Quantum Electron. 33, 1081-1084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. X. Kaertner, ed., Few-cycle laser pulse generation and its application, (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

D. W . Lynch and W. R . Hunter, "Comments on the optical constants of metals and an introduction to the data for several metals," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

J. Nocedal and S. J. Wright, Numerical Optimization, Second ed. (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity-dependent nonlinear refraction and absorption of silica glass doped with silver nanospheres with small diameter calculated by using the generalized Maxwell-Garnett approach. Total absorption coefficient (a) and its nonlinear change (d), nonlinear refractive index change (c), the nonlinear refractive index and the absorption saturation coefficient (e), as well as the saturation intensity and the enhancement factor (f) are presented depending on the wavelength. In (b), loss is depicted as a function of intensity for different filling factors (blue, green, red and cyan curves correspond to filling factor of 10−5, 10−4, 10−3 and 10−2 respectively.) In (a), (c) and (d), blue, green, red and cyan curves correspond to different intensities (I = 0, 3.33 MW/cm2, 106.67 MW/cm2, and 0.81 GW/cm2 respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nonlinearity and absorption saturation of silica glass doped with Ag nanospheres by using the discrete dipole formalism. Absorption coefficient (a) and its nonlinear change (d), nonlinear change of the refractive index (c), nonlinear refractive index and the absorption saturation coefficient (b), as well as the saturation intensity (h) are presented in dependence on wavelength. In (a), (c) and (d), blue, green, red, and cyan curves correspond to I = 0, I = 0.5 GW/cm2, I = 2 GW/cm2, and I = 4.5 GW/cm2 respectively. In (e), (f), and (g) total loss is shown for intensities I = 0 (e), I = 0.5 GW/cm2 (f), and I = 2 GW/cm2 (g). In (h), saturation intensity is shown for different Ag particle diameters (blue: 10 nm, red: 30 nm, and magenta: 50 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelegnth dependence of absorption coefficient (a) and of saturation intensity (b) of silica glass doped with Ag nanorods with the height of 48 nm and diameter of 30 nm. In (c) and (d), enhanced field distributions are shown for the intensity of incident light of 0 (c) and 100 MW/cm2 (d). In (a), blue, green, red, and cyan curves correspond to I = 0, I = 0.5 GW/cm2, I = 2 GW/cm2, and I = 4.5 GW/cm2 respectively. The polarization of incident light is parallel to the axis of nanorod.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x = 3 ɛ h ɛ m 0 + 2 ɛ h + χ m ( 3 ) | x | 2 | E 0 | 2 .
ɛ eff ɛ h ɛ eff + 2 ɛ h = f ɛ m ɛ h ɛ m + 2 ɛ h ,
E j = E 0 j j k e i β r j k r j k 3 { β 2 r j k × r j k × P k + 1 i β r j k r j k 2 [ r j k 2 P k 3 r j k r j k P k ] } ,
x k = 3 ɛ h ɛ m 0 + 2 ɛ h + χ m ( 3 ) | x k | 2 | E k | 2 .

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