Abstract

The optical polarization properties of a-plane AlxGa1- xN films have been investigated by polarization-dependent photoluminescence (PL). The degree of polarization decreased with increasing the Al composition, and the main optical polarization direction switched from εcto ε//c at about x = 0.07 due to the valence band switching, representing that the optical transition energy of ε//c is surpassing that of εc. However, with the Al composition larger than x = 0.1, the higher energy optical transitions of ε//cexhibited the stronger PL intensity, opposite to the normal situations that higher energy states commonly have weaker PL intensity than the lower energy states. We utilized the 6 × 6 k.p model and the lambertian-like radiation pattern assumption to explain this abnormal optical polarization switching behavior in the a-plane AlxGa1- xN layers and obtained good agreement with the experimental results.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ-LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413–415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization anisotropy of the photoluminescence of M-plane (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3850–3852 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913–051915 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117–051119 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913–051915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117–051119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization anisotropy of the photoluminescence of M-plane (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3850–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ-LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413–415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A. C.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Badcock, T. J.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baker, T. J.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, J.

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913–051915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization anisotropy of the photoluminescence of M-plane (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3850–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ-LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413–415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Q.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. R.

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117–051119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117–051119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. M. C.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cimalla, V.

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fareed, R. S. Q.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fini, P. T.

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fred Schubert, E.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117–051119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, H.

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M. E.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913–051915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ-LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413–415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913–051915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization anisotropy of the photoluminescence of M-plane (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3850–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ-LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413–415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, B. A.

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, D. W.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hollander, J. L.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Honshio, A.

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. H.

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. M.

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iwaya, M.

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, C. F.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, S.

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117–051119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. S.

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuokstis, E.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. C.

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ling, S. C.

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maruska, H. P.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, S.

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McAleese, C.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minsky, M. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakarmi, M. L.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, K. B.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization anisotropy of the photoluminescence of M-plane (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3850–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ-LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413–415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramsteiner, M.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization anisotropy of the photoluminescence of M-plane (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3850–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A. M.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117–051119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sridhara Rao, D. V.

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. H.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. J.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization anisotropy of the photoluminescence of M-plane (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3850–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuda, M.

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uecker, R.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ-LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413–415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. M.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. R.

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, V. Cimalla, and O. Ambacher, “Growth of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire with a GaN buffer by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1136–1138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. Matsuda, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Structural and morphological characteristics of planar (11-20) a-plane gallium nitride grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Chen, M. E. Gaevski, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, J. P. Zhang, R. S. Q. Fareed, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, H. P. Maruska, D. W. Hill, M. M. C. Chou, and B. Chai, “GaN homoepitaxy on freestanding (1-100) oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3194–3196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ-LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413–415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization anisotropy of the photoluminescence of M-plane (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3850–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913–051915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117–051119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, J. L. Hollander, C. F. Johnston, D. V. Sridhara Rao, A. M. Sanchez, and C. J. Humphreys, “Optical polarization anisotropy of a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

H. M. Huang, S. C. Ling, J. R. Chen, T. S. Ko, J. C. Li, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Growth and characterization of a-plane AlxGa1−xN alloys by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(6), 869–873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Growth of M-plane GaN (1-100) on γ-LiAlO2(1 0 0),” J. Cryst. Growth 218(2-4), 143–147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Non-polar-oriented InGaN light-emitting diodes for liquid crystal-display backlighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 571–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Tsuda, H. Furukawa, A. Honshio, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Anisotropically Biaxial Strain in a-Plane AlGaN on GaN Grown on r-Plane Sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 4A), 2509–2513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experiment measurements and (b) simulation calculation of the PL intensity and spontaneous emission rate of a-plane Al x Ga1- x N films with the different aluminum compositions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The degree of polarization (DOP) of a-plane AlxGa1-xN films with increasing Al composition x as a function of polarization angle starting at c-direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The valence band energy dispersion relation under anisotropic tensile strained condition of the a-plane Al x Ga1- x N films (a) x = 0.07 and (b) x = 0.28.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) are the schematic illustrations of the influence of IxPx to the y-polarized light and z-polarized light, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The degree of polarization and the difference of peak energy for a-plane Al x Ga1- x N films are shown

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = 0 90 cos θ × 2 π r sin θ r d θ
P x = 82 90 cos θ × 2 π r sin ( π 2 - θ ) cos ( π 2 - θ ) r d θ / P
P y = P z = 0 8 cos θ × 2 π r sin θ cos θ r d θ / P
I y x = ( I x P x ) / 2 + I y P y
I z x = ( I x P x ) / 2 + I z P z

Metrics