Abstract

Energy loss is a main problem of liquid crystal adaptive optics systems (LC AOSs). It is caused by the polarization dependence and narrow spectral range. The polarization dependence has been avoided by Love and Mu et al. [Appl. Opt. 32, 2222 (1993); Appl. Opt. 47, 4297 (2008)]. In this paper, a novel method was proposed to extend the spectral range of LC AOSs using multiple liquid crystal wavefront correctors (LCWFCs) to improve the energy utilization. Firstly, the chromatism of an LCWFC was measured and analyzed. The calculated results indicate that one LCWFC is only suitable to perform adaptive correction for a narrow waveband; therefore, multiple LCWFCs must be used to achieve a broadband correction. Secondly, based on open-loop control, a novel optical layout consisting of three LCWFCs was proposed to extend the spectral range of LC AOSs and thus achieve correction in the whole waveband of 520–810 nm. Thirdly, a broadband correction experiment was conducted and near diffraction-limited resolution was achieved in the waveband of 520–690 nm. Finally, a 500 m horizontal turbulence correction experiment was performed in the waveband of 520–690 nm. With adaptive correction, the resolution of the optical system was improved significantly and the image of the single fiber was clearly resolved. Furthermore, compared with a sub-waveband system, the system energy was improved. The energy of the whole waveband is equal to the sum of all the sub-wavebands. The experiment results validated our method and indicate that the chromatism in a broad waveband of LC AOSs can be eliminated. And then, the system energy can be improved greatly using the novel method.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

2008

2005

S. Serati and J. Stockley, “Advances in liquid crystal based devices for wavefront control and beamsteering,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940K (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cao, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and Q. Mu, “Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5186–5191 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2000

1998

1997

1995

1993

Baker, J.

Booth, M. J.

Browne, S.

Cao, Z.

Dayton, D.

Gallegos, J.

Gonglewski, J.

Hu, L.

Jin, L.

Johnson, K. M.

Kirby, A. K.

Laude, V.

V. Laude, “Twisted nematic liquid-crystal pixelated active lens,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 134–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Liu, Y.

Love, G. D.

McDermott, S.

Mu, Q.

Neil, M. A. A.

Ramsey, R. A.

Restaino, S.

Rogers, S.

Serati, S.

S. Serati and J. Stockley, “Advances in liquid crystal based devices for wavefront control and beamsteering,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940K (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serati, S. A.

Sharp, G. D.

Shilko, M.

Stockley, J.

S. Serati and J. Stockley, “Advances in liquid crystal based devices for wavefront control and beamsteering,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940K (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stockley, J. E.

Wilson, T.

Xuan, L.

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Commun.

V. Laude, “Twisted nematic liquid-crystal pixelated active lens,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 134–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. Serati and J. Stockley, “Advances in liquid crystal based devices for wavefront control and beamsteering,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940K (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. D. Love, S. R. Restaino, R. C. Carreras, G. C. Loos, R. V. Morrison, T. Baur, and G. Kopp, “Polarization insensitive 127-segment liquid crystal wavefront corrector,” OSA summer topical meeting on adaptive optics. p. 288–290 (1996)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Birefringence ∆n as a function of wavelength, measured by a spectroscopic ellipsometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase modulation as a function of wavelength for λ0 = 550 nm, 633 nm, and 750 nm, respectively; the two horizontal dashed lines indicate the phase deviation range; while the four vertical dashed lines illustrate three sub-wavebands of 520–590 nm, 590–690 nm and 690–820 nm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength for λ0 = 550 nm, 633 nm, and 750 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical set-up for broadband correction; PLS represents a point light source, PBS is a polarized beam splitter, DBS means dichroic beam splitter, DBS1 is a bandpass filter, and DBS2 and DBS3 are long-pass filters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical layout for waveband of 520–690 nm correction with two LCWFCs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of the resolution target for different wavebands: (a) no correction; (b) 520–590 nm; (c) 590–690 nm; (d) 520–690 nm; the circular area represents the resolving limitation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The spectral curve of the light source.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Brightness distribution in a line of the image: black line, 520–590 nm; red line, 590–690 nm; blue line, 520–690 nm, and the circle represents the sum of the black line and the red line.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical configuration of the LC AOS.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fiber bundle image: (a) original image; (b) before correction; (c) after correction.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Brightness distribution in a line of the image: black line, 520 –590 nm; red line, 590–690 nm; blue line, 520–690 nm; the circle represents the sum of the black line and the red line.

Equations (3)

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Δ φ max ( λ 0 ) = 2 π Δ n ( λ 0 , V max ) d λ 0 = 2 π .
Δ φ max ( λ ) = 2 π Δ n ( λ , V max ) d λ .
η = | sin ( π d Δ n ( λ , V max ) / λ ) π ( d Δ n ( λ , V max ) / λ 1 ) | 2 .

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