Abstract

We demonstrate solution-processed photodetectors composed of heavy-metal-free Si nano/micro particle composite. The colloidal Si particles are synthesized by electrochemical etching of Si wafers, followed by ultra-sonication to pulverize the porous surface. With alkyl ligand surface passivation through hydrosilylation reaction, the particles can form a stable colloidal suspension which exhibits bright photoluminescence under ultraviolet excitation and a broadband extinction spectrum due to enhanced scattering from the micro-size particles. The efficiency of the thin film photodetectors has been substantially improved by preventing oxidation of the particles during the etching process.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

E. H. Sargent, “Infrared photovoltaics made by solution processing,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 325–331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

X. Zhang, D. Neiner, S. Wang, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “A new solution route to hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization and water stability,” Nanotechnology 18(9), 095601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. C. Veinot, “Synthesis, surface functionalization, and properties of freestanding silicon nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (40): 4160–4168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution,” Science 310(5747), 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulovic, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Mangolini, E. Thimsen, and U. Kortshagen, “High-yield plasma synthesis of luminescent silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 655–659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-M. Liu, S. Sato, and K. Kimura, “Synthesis of luminescent silicon nanopowders redispersible to various solvents,” Langmuir 21(14), 6324–6329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Nayfeh, S. Rao, O. M. Nayfeh, A. Smith, and J. Therrien, “UV photodetectors with thin-film Si nanoparticle active medium,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 4(6), 660–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. M. Derfus, W. C. W. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, “Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 11–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. Ding, B. M. Quinn, S. K. Haram, L. E. Pell, B. A. Korgel, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 296(5571), 1293–1297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

G. Belomoin, J. Therrien, and M. Nayfeh, “Oxide and hydrogen capped ultrasmall blue luminescent Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

Z. Yamani, W. H. Thompson, L. AbuHassan, and M. H. Nayfeh, “Ideal anodization of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconductor polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

AbuHassan, L.

Z. Yamani, W. H. Thompson, L. AbuHassan, and M. H. Nayfeh, “Ideal anodization of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution,” Science 310(5747), 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconductor polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arango, A. C.

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulovic, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bard, A. J.

Z. Ding, B. M. Quinn, S. K. Haram, L. E. Pell, B. A. Korgel, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 296(5571), 1293–1297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardecker, J. A.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulovic, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belomoin, G.

G. Belomoin, J. Therrien, and M. Nayfeh, “Oxide and hydrogen capped ultrasmall blue luminescent Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, S. N.

A. M. Derfus, W. C. W. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, “Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 11–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulovic, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. C. W.

A. M. Derfus, W. C. W. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, “Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 11–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clifford, J.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clifford, J. P.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colvin, V. L.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconductor polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Derfus, A. M.

A. M. Derfus, W. C. W. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, “Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 11–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, I.-K.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Z.

Z. Ding, B. M. Quinn, S. K. Haram, L. E. Pell, B. A. Korgel, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 296(5571), 1293–1297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doty, R. C.

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellingson, R. J.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, A.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromer, N. A.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution,” Science 310(5747), 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geier, M. L.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution,” Science 310(5747), 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginger, D. S.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gur, I.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution,” Science 310(5747), 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haram, S. K.

Z. Ding, B. M. Quinn, S. K. Haram, L. E. Pell, B. A. Korgel, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 296(5571), 1293–1297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y.

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, J. D.

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogland, S.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, I.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, K. P.

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, K. W.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, Z.

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauzlarich, S. M.

X. Zhang, D. Neiner, S. Wang, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “A new solution route to hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization and water stability,” Nanotechnology 18(9), 095601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, K.

S.-M. Liu, S. Sato, and K. Kimura, “Synthesis of luminescent silicon nanopowders redispersible to various solvents,” Langmuir 21(14), 6324–6329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klem, E.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konstantatos, G.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korgel, B. A.

Z. Ding, B. M. Quinn, S. K. Haram, L. E. Pell, B. A. Korgel, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 296(5571), 1293–1297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kortshagen, U.

L. Mangolini, E. Thimsen, and U. Kortshagen, “High-yield plasma synthesis of luminescent silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 655–659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, M.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-T.

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levina, L.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. S.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.-M.

S.-M. Liu, S. Sato, and K. Kimura, “Synthesis of luminescent silicon nanopowders redispersible to various solvents,” Langmuir 21(14), 6324–6329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louie, A. Y.

X. Zhang, D. Neiner, S. Wang, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “A new solution route to hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization and water stability,” Nanotechnology 18(9), 095601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther, J. M.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangolini, L.

L. Mangolini, E. Thimsen, and U. Kortshagen, “High-yield plasma synthesis of luminescent silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 655–659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, A. M.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nayfeh, M.

G. Belomoin, J. Therrien, and M. Nayfeh, “Oxide and hydrogen capped ultrasmall blue luminescent Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nayfeh, M. H.

M. H. Nayfeh, S. Rao, O. M. Nayfeh, A. Smith, and J. Therrien, “UV photodetectors with thin-film Si nanoparticle active medium,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 4(6), 660–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yamani, W. H. Thompson, L. AbuHassan, and M. H. Nayfeh, “Ideal anodization of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nayfeh, O. M.

M. H. Nayfeh, S. Rao, O. M. Nayfeh, A. Smith, and J. Therrien, “UV photodetectors with thin-film Si nanoparticle active medium,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 4(6), 660–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neiner, D.

X. Zhang, D. Neiner, S. Wang, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “A new solution route to hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization and water stability,” Nanotechnology 18(9), 095601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Y.-H.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nozik, A. J.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oertel, D. C.

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulovic, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pell, L. E.

Z. Ding, B. M. Quinn, S. K. Haram, L. E. Pell, B. A. Korgel, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 296(5571), 1293–1297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, B. M.

Z. Ding, B. M. Quinn, S. K. Haram, L. E. Pell, B. A. Korgel, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 296(5571), 1293–1297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, S.

M. H. Nayfeh, S. Rao, O. M. Nayfeh, A. Smith, and J. Therrien, “UV photodetectors with thin-film Si nanoparticle active medium,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 4(6), 660–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reese, M. O.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sargent, E. H.

E. H. Sargent, “Infrared photovoltaics made by solution processing,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 325–331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, S.

S.-M. Liu, S. Sato, and K. Kimura, “Synthesis of luminescent silicon nanopowders redispersible to various solvents,” Langmuir 21(14), 6324–6329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlamp, M. C.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconductor polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Y.

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A.

M. H. Nayfeh, S. Rao, O. M. Nayfeh, A. Smith, and J. Therrien, “UV photodetectors with thin-film Si nanoparticle active medium,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 4(6), 660–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swihart, M. T.

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talukdar, S. S.

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Therrien, J.

M. H. Nayfeh, S. Rao, O. M. Nayfeh, A. Smith, and J. Therrien, “UV photodetectors with thin-film Si nanoparticle active medium,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 4(6), 660–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Belomoin, J. Therrien, and M. Nayfeh, “Oxide and hydrogen capped ultrasmall blue luminescent Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thimsen, E.

L. Mangolini, E. Thimsen, and U. Kortshagen, “High-yield plasma synthesis of luminescent silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 655–659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, W. H.

Z. Yamani, W. H. Thompson, L. AbuHassan, and M. H. Nayfeh, “Ideal anodization of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, C. H. A.

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veinot, J. G. C.

J. G. C. Veinot, “Synthesis, surface functionalization, and properties of freestanding silicon nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (40): 4160–4168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

X. Zhang, D. Neiner, S. Wang, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “A new solution route to hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization and water stability,” Nanotechnology 18(9), 095601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, N. B.

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamani, Z.

Z. Yamani, W. H. Thompson, L. AbuHassan, and M. H. Nayfeh, “Ideal anodization of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zapien, J. A.

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, D. Neiner, S. Wang, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “A new solution route to hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization and water stability,” Nanotechnology 18(9), 095601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, K. J.

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulovic, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum-dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yamani, W. H. Thompson, L. AbuHassan, and M. H. Nayfeh, “Ideal anodization of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Belomoin, J. Therrien, and M. Nayfeh, “Oxide and hydrogen capped ultrasmall blue luminescent Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

J. G. C. Veinot, “Synthesis, surface functionalization, and properties of freestanding silicon nanocrystals,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (40): 4160–4168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol.

M. H. Nayfeh, S. Rao, O. M. Nayfeh, A. Smith, and J. Therrien, “UV photodetectors with thin-film Si nanoparticle active medium,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 4(6), 660–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Kang, C. H. A. Tsang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhang, N. B. Wong, J. A. Zapien, Y. Shan, and S.-T. Lee, “A polyoxometalate-assisted electrochemical method for silicon nanostructures preparation: from quantum dots to nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(17), 5326–5327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Liu, S. Sato, and K. Kimura, “Synthesis of luminescent silicon nanopowders redispersible to various solvents,” Langmuir 21(14), 6324–6329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

L. Mangolini, E. Thimsen, and U. Kortshagen, “High-yield plasma synthesis of luminescent silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 655–659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y.-H. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derfus, W. C. W. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, “Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 11–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

X. Zhang, D. Neiner, S. Wang, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “A new solution route to hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization and water stability,” Nanotechnology 18(9), 095601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

E. H. Sargent, “Infrared photovoltaics made by solution processing,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 325–331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconductor polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

Z. Ding, B. M. Quinn, S. K. Haram, L. E. Pell, B. A. Korgel, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 296(5571), 1293–1297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution,” Science 310(5747), 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. D. Palik, “Handbook of optical constants of solids,” (Elsevier, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The SEM images of Si wafer surface after being electrochemically etched at (a) high and (b) low current density. The SEM images of the drop-casted Si nano/micro particle composite thin film in (c) lower magnification, (d) higher magnification and in (e) cross-sectional view. (f) The redish / orangish photoluminescence of the silicon wafer under 365 nm UV lamp illumination after electrochemical etching and before ultra-sonication.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The normalized extinction (dashed) and photoluminescence (solid) spectra of the colloidal Si nano/micro particle suspension measured in 1-octene. The inset photograph shows the redish / orangish photoluminescence of the colloidal suspension under 365 nm UV excitation. (b) The absorption spectra of the 40-layer Si nano/micro particle composite thin film (dashed) and a 4 μm-thick Si single crystalline thin film (square).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The I-V measurement results of the photodetector in dark (circle) and under 405 nm laser illumination (square). The inset illustrates the structure of the comb-shape lateral electrodes used for photodetection measurement. The shaded area illustrates the region covered with Si nano/micro particle composite. (b) The responsivity and external quantum efficiency (EQE) vs. applied voltages of the photodetectors composed of nano/micro particles with less (square) and more (dot) oxidation during the etching process.

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