Abstract

A photon-tissue interaction (PTI) model was developed and employed to analyze 96 pairs of reflectance and fluorescence spectra from freshly excised human pancreatic tissues. For each pair of spectra, the PTI model extracted a cellular nuclear size parameter from the measured reflectance, and the relative contributions of extracellular and intracellular fluorophores to the intrinsic fluorescence. The results suggest that reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies have the potential to quantitatively distinguish among pancreatic tissue types, including normal pancreatic tissue, pancreatitis, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M.-A. Mycek, “Spectral areas and ratios classifier algorithm for pancreatic tissue classification using optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, Y. Liu, I. R. Capoglu, J. D. Rogers, H. K. Roy, R. E. Brand, and V. Backman, “Partial-wave microscopic spectroscopy detects subwavelength refractive index fluctuations: an application to cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 518–520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wilson, M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M. A. Mycek, “Optical spectroscopy detects histological hallmarks of pancreatic cancer,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17502–17516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chandra, K. Vishwanath, G. D. Fichter, E. Liao, S. J. Hollister, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative molecular sensing in biological tissues: an approach to non-invasive optical characterization,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6157–6171 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

K. Vishwanath and M.-A. Mycek, “Time-resolved photon migration in bi-layered tissue models,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7466–7482 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Testoni, B. Mangiavillano, L. Albarello, P. G. Arcidiacono, A. Mariani, E. Masci, and C. Doglioni, “Optical coherence tomography to detect epithelial lesions of the main pancreatic duct: an Ex Vivo study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100(12), 2777–2783 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: are they all ‘chronic pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Lin and G. Staerkel, “Cytologic criteria for well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens,” Cancer 99(1), 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in turbid media: comparison of theoretical, experimental and computational methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(18), 3387–3405 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. D. Pitts and M.-A. Mycek, “Design and development of a rapid acquisition laser-based fluorometer with simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(7), 3061–3072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. R. Weger and J. L. Lindholm, “Discrimination of pancreatic adenocarcinomas from chronic pancreatitis by morphometric analysis,” Pathol. Res. Pract. 188(1-2), 44–48 (1992).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

B. W. Killough, C. A. Nichols, J. A. Nicholson, and T. S. Gansler, “Diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma by fine needle aspiration cytology and computerized cytomorphometry,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol. 11(4), 238–242 (1989).
[PubMed]

A’Amar, O.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abraham, S. C.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: are they all ‘chronic pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Albarello, L.

P. A. Testoni, B. Mangiavillano, L. Albarello, P. G. Arcidiacono, A. Mariani, E. Masci, and C. Doglioni, “Optical coherence tomography to detect epithelial lesions of the main pancreatic duct: an Ex Vivo study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100(12), 2777–2783 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amorosino, M. S.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arcidiacono, P. G.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Testoni, B. Mangiavillano, L. Albarello, P. G. Arcidiacono, A. Mariani, E. Masci, and C. Doglioni, “Optical coherence tomography to detect epithelial lesions of the main pancreatic duct: an Ex Vivo study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100(12), 2777–2783 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Backhaus, J.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Bastidas, A. J.

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechtel, K. L.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergert, H.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergmann, F.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I. J.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobrowski, C.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boitnott, J. K.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: are they all ‘chronic pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brand, L.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

Brown, J. M.

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Büchler, M. W.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, A.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabro, K. W.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, J. L.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: are they all ‘chronic pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capoglu, I. R.

Chandra, M.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M.-A. Mycek, “Spectral areas and ratios classifier algorithm for pancreatic tissue classification using optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wilson, M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M. A. Mycek, “Optical spectroscopy detects histological hallmarks of pancreatic cancer,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17502–17516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chandra, K. Vishwanath, G. D. Fichter, E. Liao, S. J. Hollister, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative molecular sensing in biological tissues: an approach to non-invasive optical characterization,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6157–6171 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Werth, A.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Pietro, S.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diener, M. K.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Distler, M.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doglioni, C.

P. A. Testoni, B. Mangiavillano, L. Albarello, P. G. Arcidiacono, A. Mariani, E. Masci, and C. Doglioni, “Optical coherence tomography to detect epithelial lesions of the main pancreatic duct: an Ex Vivo study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100(12), 2777–2783 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi and M. S. Feld, “The combined use of fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 519–537, ix (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fichter, G. D.

Finlay, J. C.

Fisher, G. A.

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

Fritscher-Ravens, A.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gansler, T. S.

B. W. Killough, C. A. Nichols, J. A. Nicholson, and T. S. Gansler, “Diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma by fine needle aspiration cytology and computerized cytomorphometry,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol. 11(4), 238–242 (1989).
[PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi and M. S. Feld, “The combined use of fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 519–537, ix (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grützmann, R.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haka, A. S.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartwig, W.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heidt, D.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hollister, S. J.

Hruban, R. H.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: are they all ‘chronic pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iguchi, H.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamura, M.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamura, T.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishigami, S.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keese, M.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersting, F.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersting, S.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killough, B. W.

B. W. Killough, C. A. Nichols, J. A. Nicholson, and T. S. Gansler, “Diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma by fine needle aspiration cytology and computerized cytomorphometry,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol. 11(4), 238–242 (1989).
[PubMed]

Knöfel, W. T.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondepati, V. R.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konopke, R.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koong, A. C.

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, Q. T.

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, E.

Lin, F.

F. Lin and G. Staerkel, “Cytologic criteria for well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens,” Cancer 99(1), 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindholm, J. L.

A. R. Weger and J. L. Lindholm, “Discrimination of pancreatic adenocarcinomas from chronic pancreatitis by morphometric analysis,” Pathol. Res. Pract. 188(1-2), 44–48 (1992).
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Manabe, T.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manegold, B. C.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangiavillano, B.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Testoni, B. Mangiavillano, L. Albarello, P. G. Arcidiacono, A. Mariani, E. Masci, and C. Doglioni, “Optical coherence tomography to detect epithelial lesions of the main pancreatic duct: an Ex Vivo study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100(12), 2777–2783 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

Mariani, A.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Testoni, B. Mangiavillano, L. Albarello, P. G. Arcidiacono, A. Mariani, E. Masci, and C. Doglioni, “Optical coherence tomography to detect epithelial lesions of the main pancreatic duct: an Ex Vivo study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100(12), 2777–2783 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marin, N.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masci, E.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Testoni, B. Mangiavillano, L. Albarello, P. G. Arcidiacono, A. Mariani, E. Masci, and C. Doglioni, “Optical coherence tomography to detect epithelial lesions of the main pancreatic duct: an Ex Vivo study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100(12), 2777–2783 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKenna, B.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M.-A. Mycek, “Spectral areas and ratios classifier algorithm for pancreatic tissue classification using optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wilson, M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M. A. Mycek, “Optical spectroscopy detects histological hallmarks of pancreatic cancer,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17502–17516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, V. K.

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mycek, M. A.

Mycek, M.-A.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M.-A. Mycek, “Spectral areas and ratios classifier algorithm for pancreatic tissue classification using optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chandra, K. Vishwanath, G. D. Fichter, E. Liao, S. J. Hollister, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative molecular sensing in biological tissues: an approach to non-invasive optical characterization,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6157–6171 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath and M.-A. Mycek, “Time-resolved photon migration in bi-layered tissue models,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7466–7482 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath and M.-A. Mycek, “Do fluorescence decays remitted from tissues accurately reflect intrinsic fluorophore lifetimes?” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1512–1514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in turbid media: comparison of theoretical, experimental and computational methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(18), 3387–3405 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts and M.-A. Mycek, “Design and development of a rapid acquisition laser-based fluorometer with simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(7), 3061–3072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nazemi, J.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichols, C. A.

B. W. Killough, C. A. Nichols, J. A. Nicholson, and T. S. Gansler, “Diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma by fine needle aspiration cytology and computerized cytomorphometry,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol. 11(4), 238–242 (1989).
[PubMed]

Nicholson, J. A.

B. W. Killough, C. A. Nichols, J. A. Nicholson, and T. S. Gansler, “Diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma by fine needle aspiration cytology and computerized cytomorphometry,” Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol. 11(4), 238–242 (1989).
[PubMed]

Ohshio, G.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts and M.-A. Mycek, “Design and development of a rapid acquisition laser-based fluorometer with simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(7), 3061–3072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in turbid media: comparison of theoretical, experimental and computational methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(18), 3387–3405 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, P.

Purdy, J.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M.-A. Mycek, “Spectral areas and ratios classifier algorithm for pancreatic tissue classification using optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wilson, M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M. A. Mycek, “Optical spectroscopy detects histological hallmarks of pancreatic cancer,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17502–17516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. D.

Roy, H. K.

Saeger, H.-D.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheiman, J.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M.-A. Mycek, “Spectral areas and ratios classifier algorithm for pancreatic tissue classification using optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wilson, M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M. A. Mycek, “Optical spectroscopy detects histological hallmarks of pancreatic cancer,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17502–17516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, L.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shenk, R.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simeone, D.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M.-A. Mycek, “Spectral areas and ratios classifier algorithm for pancreatic tissue classification using optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wilson, M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M. A. Mycek, “Optical spectroscopy detects histological hallmarks of pancreatic cancer,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17502–17516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. K.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soehendra, N.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohn, T. A.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: are they all ‘chronic pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Staerkel, G.

F. Lin and G. Staerkel, “Cytologic criteria for well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens,” Cancer 99(1), 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturm, J.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanian, H.

Suwa, H.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terris, D. J.

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testoni, P. A.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Testoni, B. Mangiavillano, L. Albarello, P. G. Arcidiacono, A. Mariani, E. Masci, and C. Doglioni, “Optical coherence tomography to detect epithelial lesions of the main pancreatic duct: an Ex Vivo study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100(12), 2777–2783 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thonke, F.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Topalidis, T.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

Vierra, M.

A. C. Koong, V. K. Mehta, Q. T. Le, G. A. Fisher, D. J. Terris, J. M. Brown, A. J. Bastidas, and M. Vierra, “Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 48(4), 919–922 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishwanath, K.

Volk, A.

S. Kersting, R. Konopke, F. Kersting, A. Volk, M. Distler, H. Bergert, H.-D. Saeger, R. Grützmann, and A. Bunk, “Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas,” Gastroenterology 137(6), 1903–1911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volynskaya, Z.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. H.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative analysis of collagen and collagen subtypes I, III, and V in human pancreatic cancer, tumor-associated chronic pancreatitis, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weger, A. R.

A. R. Weger and J. L. Lindholm, “Discrimination of pancreatic adenocarcinomas from chronic pancreatitis by morphometric analysis,” Pathol. Res. Pract. 188(1-2), 44–48 (1992).
[PubMed]

Werner, J.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilentz, R. E.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: are they all ‘chronic pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. H.

Yeo, C. J.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: are they all ‘chronic pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, T.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of clinical instrumentation. ND = neutral density filter, L = lens, LP = long pass filter, APD = avalanche photodiode, ICCD = intensified charge coupled device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative (a) reflectance and (b) fluorescence spectra of normal pancreatic tissue, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Best fits of the PTI model to measured reflectance spectra (top row) and intrinsic fluorescence spectra (bottom row) for chronic pancreatitis (left column) and adenocarcinoma spectra (right column). Over all measured spectra, the average error in fit of the PTI reflectance model was less than 16% in the wavelength range 450-530 nm, and the average error in fit of the PTI fluorescence model was less than 6% in the wavelength range of 500-550 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extracted nuclear dilation factor L/Lo for normal pancreatic tissue (N = 22 spectra), chronic pancreatitis (N = 41 spectra), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (N = 33 spectra). Differences were statistically significant (*, p < 2x10−9 from Wilcoxon rank-sum tests) for distinguishing adenocarcinoma from normal pancreatic tissue as well as distinguishing adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extracted percentage contributions of extracellular collagen to intrinsic fluorescence spectra of normal pancreatic tissue (N = 22 spectra), chronic pancreatitis (N = 41 spectra), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (N = 33 spectra). Differences were statistically significant for distinguishing adenocarcinoma from normal pancreatic tissue as well as distinguishing adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis (*, p < 2x10−5 from Wilcoxon rank-sum tests). Differences were also statistically significant for distinguishing chronic pancreatitis from normal pancreatic tissue (**, p < 3x10−2 from Wilcoxon rank-sum test).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ranges and step sizes for tissue parameters in the PTI model

Equations (2)

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R U N K N O W N P T I ( μ a , μ s ; λ ) = ( R N O R M A L M E A S U R E D ( μ a , μ s ; λ ) ) ( R U N K N O W N E M P ( μ a , μ s ; λ ) R N O R M A L E M P ( μ a , μ s ; λ ) )
F I N T R I N S I C ( λ ) = C C O L L F C O L L ( λ ) + C N A D H F N A D H ( λ ) + C F A D F F A D ( λ )

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