Abstract

We first investigated the alignment characteristics of tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) thin films deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. This study demonstrates that liquid crystal (LC) molecules could be aligned homogeneously by controlling the Ion Beam (IB) irradiation energy densities. We also show that the pretilt angle of the LC molecules has a close relation with the surface energy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that a non-stoichiometric SnO2-x surface converted by ion beam irradiation can horizontally align the LC molecules. The measured electro-optical (EO) characteristics showed high performance, comparable with those of rubbed and ion-beam irradiated polyimide (PI) layers.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Varghese, G. P. Crawford, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. K. G. de Boer, and D. J. Broer, “Microrubbing technique to produce high pretilt multidomain liquid crystal alignment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 230 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. K. Lee, J. H. Choi, H. J. Na, J. H. Lim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Low-power operation of vertically aligned liquid-crystal system via anatase-TiO(2) nanoparticle dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3653–3655 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Shanthi, V. Dutta, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Electrical and optical properties of undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(12), 6243 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Du, H. Y. Mak, P. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Single Twist nematic mode single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010209 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. T. K. Wan, O. K. C. Tsui, H.-S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal pretilt control by inhomogeneous surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 021711 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. T. Creagh and A. R. Kmetz, “Mechanism of surface alignment in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 24(1), 59–68 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. L. Morales, A. Montes, S. Y. Lopez, N. Raigoza, and C. A. Duque, “Donor-related density of states and polarizability in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-well under hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(2), 652–656 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Medved, P. W. Fowler, and J. M. Hutson, “Anisotropic dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moments of open-shell atoms and ions: O, F, S, Cl, Se, Br and isoelectronic systems,” Mol. Phys. 98(7), 453–463 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. W. Langhoff, R. G. Gordon, and M. Karplus, “Comparisons of dispersion force bounding methods with applications to anisotropic interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(5), 2126 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

W. K. Lee, J. H. Choi, H. J. Na, J. H. Lim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Low-power operation of vertically aligned liquid-crystal system via anatase-TiO(2) nanoparticle dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3653–3655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Du, H. Y. Mak, P. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Single Twist nematic mode single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. K. Wan, O. K. C. Tsui, H.-S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal pretilt control by inhomogeneous surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 021711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Varghese, G. P. Crawford, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. K. G. de Boer, and D. J. Broer, “Microrubbing technique to produce high pretilt multidomain liquid crystal alignment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. L. Morales, A. Montes, S. Y. Lopez, N. Raigoza, and C. A. Duque, “Donor-related density of states and polarizability in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-well under hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(2), 652–656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Medved, P. W. Fowler, and J. M. Hutson, “Anisotropic dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moments of open-shell atoms and ions: O, F, S, Cl, Se, Br and isoelectronic systems,” Mol. Phys. 98(7), 453–463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. Shanthi, V. Dutta, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Electrical and optical properties of undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(12), 6243 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

L. T. Creagh and A. R. Kmetz, “Mechanism of surface alignment in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 24(1), 59–68 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

P. W. Langhoff, R. G. Gordon, and M. Karplus, “Comparisons of dispersion force bounding methods with applications to anisotropic interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(5), 2126 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H. K.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

E. Shanthi, V. Dutta, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Electrical and optical properties of undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(12), 6243 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

S. Varghese, G. P. Crawford, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. K. G. de Boer, and D. J. Broer, “Microrubbing technique to produce high pretilt multidomain liquid crystal alignment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

S. Varghese, G. P. Crawford, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. K. G. de Boer, and D. J. Broer, “Microrubbing technique to produce high pretilt multidomain liquid crystal alignment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Callegari, A. C.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, P.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chigrinov, V.

T. Du, H. Y. Mak, P. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Single Twist nematic mode single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. J.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

Chopra, K. L.

E. Shanthi, V. Dutta, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Electrical and optical properties of undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(12), 6243 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chunyan, L.

S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

S. Varghese, G. P. Crawford, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. K. G. de Boer, and D. J. Broer, “Microrubbing technique to produce high pretilt multidomain liquid crystal alignment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Creagh, L. T.

L. T. Creagh and A. R. Kmetz, “Mechanism of surface alignment in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 24(1), 59–68 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Czempik, G.

M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, D. K. G.

S. Varghese, G. P. Crawford, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. K. G. de Boer, and D. J. Broer, “Microrubbing technique to produce high pretilt multidomain liquid crystal alignment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. P.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, T.

T. Du, H. Y. Mak, P. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Single Twist nematic mode single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duque, C. A.

A. L. Morales, A. Montes, S. Y. Lopez, N. Raigoza, and C. A. Duque, “Donor-related density of states and polarizability in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-well under hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(2), 652–656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, V.

E. Shanthi, V. Dutta, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Electrical and optical properties of undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(12), 6243 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, P. W.

M. Medved, P. W. Fowler, and J. M. Hutson, “Anisotropic dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moments of open-shell atoms and ions: O, F, S, Cl, Se, Br and isoelectronic systems,” Mol. Phys. 98(7), 453–463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gobrecht, J.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R. G.

P. W. Langhoff, R. G. Gordon, and M. Karplus, “Comparisons of dispersion force bounding methods with applications to anisotropic interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(5), 2126 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. M.

W. K. Lee, J. H. Choi, H. J. Na, J. H. Lim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Low-power operation of vertically aligned liquid-crystal system via anatase-TiO(2) nanoparticle dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3653–3655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. W.

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. Y. L.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hutson, J. M.

M. Medved, P. W. Fowler, and J. M. Hutson, “Anisotropic dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moments of open-shell atoms and ions: O, F, S, Cl, Se, Br and isoelectronic systems,” Mol. Phys. 98(7), 453–463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. H.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. Y.

W. K. Lee, J. H. Choi, H. J. Na, J. H. Lim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Low-power operation of vertically aligned liquid-crystal system via anatase-TiO(2) nanoparticle dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3653–3655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janning, J. L.

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jianda, S.

S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jo, M. K.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jo, S. J.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. H.

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karplus, M.

P. W. Langhoff, R. G. Gordon, and M. Karplus, “Comparisons of dispersion force bounding methods with applications to anisotropic interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(5), 2126 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kmetz, A. R.

L. T. Creagh and A. R. Kmetz, “Mechanism of surface alignment in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 24(1), 59–68 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kui, Y.

S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

T. Du, H. Y. Mak, P. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Single Twist nematic mode single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

J. T. K. Wan, O. K. C. Tsui, H.-S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal pretilt control by inhomogeneous surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 021711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwoka, M.

M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. A.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langhoff, P. W.

P. W. Langhoff, R. G. Gordon, and M. Karplus, “Comparisons of dispersion force bounding methods with applications to anisotropic interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(5), 2126 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. K.

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. K.

Lei, C.

S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lien, S. A.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J. H.

Lim, Y. J.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, S. Y.

A. L. Morales, A. Montes, S. Y. Lopez, N. Raigoza, and C. A. Duque, “Donor-related density of states and polarizability in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-well under hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(2), 652–656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luning, J.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mak, H. Y.

T. Du, H. Y. Mak, P. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Single Twist nematic mode single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Medved, M.

M. Medved, P. W. Fowler, and J. M. Hutson, “Anisotropic dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moments of open-shell atoms and ions: O, F, S, Cl, Se, Br and isoelectronic systems,” Mol. Phys. 98(7), 453–463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Montes, A.

A. L. Morales, A. Montes, S. Y. Lopez, N. Raigoza, and C. A. Duque, “Donor-related density of states and polarizability in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-well under hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(2), 652–656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morales, A. L.

A. L. Morales, A. Montes, S. Y. Lopez, N. Raigoza, and C. A. Duque, “Donor-related density of states and polarizability in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-well under hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(2), 652–656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Na, H. J.

Oh, B. Y.

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ok, C. H.

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ottaviano, L.

M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padeste, C.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Passacantando, M.

M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Purushothaman, S.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raigoza, N.

A. L. Morales, A. Montes, S. Y. Lopez, N. Raigoza, and C. A. Duque, “Donor-related density of states and polarizability in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-well under hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(2), 652–656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Samant, M. G.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santucci, S.

M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schift, H.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D. S.

W. K. Lee, J. H. Choi, H. J. Na, J. H. Lim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Low-power operation of vertically aligned liquid-crystal system via anatase-TiO(2) nanoparticle dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3653–3655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shanthi, E.

E. Shanthi, V. Dutta, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Electrical and optical properties of undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(12), 6243 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

J. T. K. Wan, O. K. C. Tsui, H.-S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal pretilt control by inhomogeneous surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 021711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, S. T.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shuzhen, S.

S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speidell, J. L.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stöhr, J.

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szuber, J.

M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, O. K. C.

J. T. K. Wan, O. K. C. Tsui, H.-S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal pretilt control by inhomogeneous surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 021711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varghese, S.

S. Varghese, G. P. Crawford, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. K. G. de Boer, and D. J. Broer, “Microrubbing technique to produce high pretilt multidomain liquid crystal alignment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wan, J. T. K.

J. T. K. Wan, O. K. C. Tsui, H.-S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal pretilt control by inhomogeneous surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 021711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, P.

T. Du, H. Y. Mak, P. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Single Twist nematic mode single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoneya, M.

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhengxiu, F.

S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. B. Kim, C. J. Choi, J. S. Park, S. J. Jo, B. H. Hwang, M. K. Jo, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “Orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules by a photoinduced transformation process into a recovery-free silicon oxide layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3073–3078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. Varghese, G. P. Crawford, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. K. G. de Boer, and D. J. Broer, “Microrubbing technique to produce high pretilt multidomain liquid crystal alignment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Shuzhen, S. Jianda, L. Chunyan, Y. Kui, F. Zhengxiu, and C. Lei, “High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249(1-4), 157–161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Shanthi, V. Dutta, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Electrical and optical properties of undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(12), 6243 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. W. Langhoff, R. G. Gordon, and M. Karplus, “Comparisons of dispersion force bounding methods with applications to anisotropic interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(5), 2126 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Du, H. Y. Mak, P. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Single Twist nematic mode single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. Y. Oh, D. H. Kang, B. Y. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. H. Kim, J. M. Han, J. Y. Hwang, C. H. Ok, and D. S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment effects on SiNx thin film layers treated by ion-beam irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7711–7713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

L. T. Creagh and A. R. Kmetz, “Mechanism of surface alignment in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 24(1), 59–68 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

M. Medved, P. W. Fowler, and J. M. Hutson, “Anisotropic dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moments of open-shell atoms and ions: O, F, S, Cl, Se, Br and isoelectronic systems,” Mol. Phys. 98(7), 453–463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

J. T. K. Wan, O. K. C. Tsui, H.-S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Liquid crystal pretilt control by inhomogeneous surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 021711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

A. L. Morales, A. Montes, S. Y. Lopez, N. Raigoza, and C. A. Duque, “Donor-related density of states and polarizability in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-well under hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(2), 652–656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Stöhr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, M. Passacantando, S. Santucci, G. Czempik, and J. Szuber, “XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO2 thin films after oxidation,” Thin Solid Films 490(1), 36–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional FESEM photographs of SnO2 films deposited at 50 °C. (b) RMS surface roughness as determined by AFM (5 x 5 μm2) of the SnO2 surfaces before and after IB-irradiation for 2 min.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmittance spectra of (a) ITO film, (b) PI-coating layer, (c) as-deposited SnO2/ITO/glass substrates. Air was used for the reference of transmittance 100%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pre-tilt angles and pre-tilt errors of IB-irradiated LCs on SnO2 thin-film surfaces as a function of IB-irradiation energy density. The inset shows the LC alignment conditions on the SnO2 thin films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Contact angles and (b) surface energies on the IB-irradiation SnO2 thin films as a function of the incident IB-irradiation energy density for an incident angle 45 °C and an exposure time of 2 min. (C) Images of the observed photographs of the contact angles as function of IB-irradiation energy densities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The XPS spectra for the Sn3d5/2 peaks from the SnO2 thin films before and after IB irradiation as a function of the incident IB-irradiation energy densities of (a) non IB-irradiation, (b) 600 eV, (c) 1200 eV, (d) 1800 eV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The XPS spectra for the O 1s peaks from the SnO2 thin films before and after IB irradiation as a function of the incident IB-irradiation energy densities of (a) non IB-irradiation, (b) 600 eV, (c) 1200 eV, (d) 1800 eV.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Principles of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on SnO2 modulated films after IB-irradiation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Response time characteristics and V–T curves of the TN-LCDs on the SnO2 and PI surfaces with IB irradiation and rubbing. (a) RT (R.T.: rise time, F.T.: fall time) and (b) V–T curve. Photomicrographs of TN-LCD cells (c) with and (d) without applying voltage (5 V).

Metrics