Abstract

Passively Q-switched operation at 1.34 μm in which V:YAG was employed as saturable absorber has been demonstrated with a series of mixed Nd:GdxY1- xVO4 crystals. The Q-switched laser pulse performance with these Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystals, especially Nd:Gd0.63Y0.37VO4, was enhanced in respect to Nd:GdVO4 under the identical conditions. The average output power of 171.3 mW with the shortest pulse width of 44.4 ns, largest single pulse energy of 21.7 μJ, and highest peak power of 489 W at the incident pump power of 5.04 W were obtained with Nd:Gd0.63Y0.37VO4 crystal.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Liu, Y. Wan, W. Han, H. Yang, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Actively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:GdxY1?xVO4: a class of mixed vanadate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 98(1), 69–76 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

Y. G. Yu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, Z. P. Wang, M. H. Jiang, H. R. Xia, and R. I. Boughton, “Growth and characterization of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 series laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 995–1001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “Continuous-wave laser performance of Nd:LuxGd1-xVO4 operating at 1.34 ?m,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(3), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2003

2000

C. Li, J. Song, D. Shen, N. S. Kim, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers operating at 1.06 ?m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 555–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. G. Matthews, J. R. Boon, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “A comparative study of diode pumped microchip laser materials: Nd-doped YVO4, YOS, SFAP and SVAP,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1079–1087 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. MacKinnon and B. D. Sinclair, “A laser diode array pumped, Nd: YVO4/KTP, composite material microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 105(3-4), 183–187 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. I. Zagumenny?, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(23), 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(23), 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boon, J. R.

D. G. Matthews, J. R. Boon, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “A comparative study of diode pumped microchip laser materials: Nd-doped YVO4, YOS, SFAP and SVAP,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1079–1087 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boughton, R. I.

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z. Q.

Cheng, X. F.

Conroy, R. S.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 555–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Matthews, J. R. Boon, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “A comparative study of diode pumped microchip laser materials: Nd-doped YVO4, YOS, SFAP and SVAP,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1079–1087 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, I. A.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 555–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, A.

J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4.,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2330–2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, X.

Du, C. L.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(23), 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(23), 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ge, W. W.

Han, W.

J. Liu, Y. Wan, W. Han, H. Yang, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Actively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:GdxY1?xVO4: a class of mixed vanadate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 98(1), 69–76 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, J. L.

Huang, J. Y.

Huang, K. F.

Huber, G.

A. I. Zagumenny?, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jabczynski, J.

Jensen, T.

A. I. Zagumenny?, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “Continuous-wave laser performance of Nd:LuxGd1-xVO4 operating at 1.34 ?m,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(3), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Yu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, Z. P. Wang, M. H. Jiang, H. R. Xia, and R. I. Boughton, “Growth and characterization of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 series laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 995–1001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Ge, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, X. F. Cheng, M. H. Jiang, C. L. Du, and S. C. Yuan, “Pulsed laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.34?m Nd: GdVO4 laser with Co: LaMgAl11O19 crystal as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3883–3889 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. S.

C. Li, J. Song, D. Shen, N. S. Kim, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers operating at 1.06 ?m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kwiatkowski, J.

Lee, C. K.

Li, C.

C. Li, J. Song, D. Shen, N. S. Kim, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers operating at 1.06 ?m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Li, D. C.

Li, G.

Li, G. Q.

Li, T.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Y. Wan, W. Han, H. Yang, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Actively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:GdxY1?xVO4: a class of mixed vanadate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 98(1), 69–76 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. H.

J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4.,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2330–2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

C. Li, J. Song, D. Shen, N. S. Kim, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers operating at 1.06 ?m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

MacKinnon, N.

N. MacKinnon and B. D. Sinclair, “A laser diode array pumped, Nd: YVO4/KTP, composite material microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 105(3-4), 183–187 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malyarevich, A. M.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 555–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. G.

D. G. Matthews, J. R. Boon, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “A comparative study of diode pumped microchip laser materials: Nd-doped YVO4, YOS, SFAP and SVAP,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1079–1087 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. L.

J. H. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4.,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2330–2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyen, J. P.

A. I. Zagumenny?, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 555–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvy, H.

Ostroumov, V. G.

A. I. Zagumenny?, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozygus, B.

J. H. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4.,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2330–2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

Pavel, N.

Piper, J.

Sandulenko, A. V.

Sato, Y.

Shao, Z. S.

J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4.,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2330–2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

A. I. Zagumenny?, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyen, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

C. Li, J. Song, D. Shen, N. S. Kim, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers operating at 1.06 ?m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, B. D.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 555–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Matthews, J. R. Boon, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “A comparative study of diode pumped microchip laser materials: Nd-doped YVO4, YOS, SFAP and SVAP,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1079–1087 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. MacKinnon and B. D. Sinclair, “A laser diode array pumped, Nd: YVO4/KTP, composite material microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 105(3-4), 183–187 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

C. Li, J. Song, D. Shen, N. S. Kim, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers operating at 1.06 ?m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, P.

Taira, T.

Ueda, K.

C. Li, J. Song, D. Shen, N. S. Kim, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers operating at 1.06 ?m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Y.

J. Liu, Y. Wan, W. Han, H. Yang, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Actively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:GdxY1?xVO4: a class of mixed vanadate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 98(1), 69–76 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Liu, Y. Wan, W. Han, H. Yang, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Actively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:GdxY1?xVO4: a class of mixed vanadate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 98(1), 69–76 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, P.

Wang, S. C.

Wang, Z. P.

Weber, H.

J. H. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4.,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2330–2332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, W. Q.

Xia, H. R.

Yan, K.

Yang, H.

J. Liu, Y. Wan, W. Han, H. Yang, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Actively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:GdxY1?xVO4: a class of mixed vanadate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 98(1), 69–76 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. J.

Yao, J. Q.

Yu, H. H.

Y. G. Yu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, Z. P. Wang, M. H. Jiang, H. R. Xia, and R. I. Boughton, “Growth and characterization of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 series laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 995–1001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “Continuous-wave laser performance of Nd:LuxGd1-xVO4 operating at 1.34 ?m,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(3), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. G.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “Continuous-wave laser performance of Nd:LuxGd1-xVO4 operating at 1.34 ?m,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(3), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Yu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, Z. P. Wang, M. H. Jiang, H. R. Xia, and R. I. Boughton, “Growth and characterization of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 series laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 995–1001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S. C.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic arrangement of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cw output power as well as average output power versus Gd composition x.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cw threshold pump power and emission cross section versus Gd composition x.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of pulse width versus Gd composition x.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse repetition rate versus Gd composition x.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The variation of pulse energy (left) and peak power (right) versus Gd composition x.

Equations (1)

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P t h r a b s = h ν p π ( ω c 2 ¯ + ω p 2 ¯ ) ( T + L ) 4 η p σ τ ,

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