Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate focusing and guiding electromagnetic (EM) waves in a designer surface plasmonic waveguide with deep subwavelength mode cross section. Our experiments show that a metal grating with suitable parameters, functioning as a designer surface plasmonic waveguide, can support deep subwavelength surface modes and the width of the modes can be squeezed also into deep subwavelength by tapering the width of the waveguide. The results provide a new insight into deep subwavelength waveguiding and focusing.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
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  4. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications, (Springer Verlag, 2007).
  5. J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Goubau, “Surface waves and their application to transmission lines,” J. Appl. Phys. 21(11), 1119 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface corrugation and surface-polariton binding in the infrared frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1569–1574 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: New plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. J. de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, “Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 233901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, L. Martn-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, and A. Nahata, “Planar plasmonic terahertz guided-wave devices,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6216–6226 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels,” Phys. Rev. B 79(23), 233104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2063–2065 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Opt. Express 18(2), 754–764 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. L. Nesterov, D. Martin-Cano, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Geometrically induced modification of surface plasmons in the optical and telecom regimes,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 423–425 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, “Nanodot coupler with a surface plasmon polariton condenser for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 181108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Z. Lu, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, C. Chen, G. P. Behrmann, and D. W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation in low index contrast photonic crystals in the millimeter wave regime,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1362–1368 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(6), 2492 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels,” Phys. Rev. B 79(23), 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2063–2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, and A. Nahata, “Planar plasmonic terahertz guided-wave devices,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6216–6226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, L. Martn-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (9)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: New plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, “Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, “Nanodot coupler with a surface plasmon polariton condenser for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, C. Chen, G. P. Behrmann, and D. W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation in low index contrast photonic crystals in the millimeter wave regime,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1362–1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(6), 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface corrugation and surface-polariton binding in the infrared frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1569–1574 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

G. Goubau, “Surface waves and their application to transmission lines,” J. Appl. Phys. 21(11), 1119 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

Andreani, L. C.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, L. Martn-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behrmann, G. P.

Z. Lu, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, C. Chen, G. P. Behrmann, and D. W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation in low index contrast photonic crystals in the millimeter wave regime,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1362–1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bek, A.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(6), 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourillot, E.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Candeloro, P.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, C. Chen, G. P. Behrmann, and D. W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation in low index contrast photonic crystals in the millimeter wave regime,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1362–1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Das, G.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, “Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Angelis, F.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dereus, A.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Fabrizio, E.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez-Dominguez, A. I.

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2063–2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels,” Phys. Rev. B 79(23), 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernndez-Domnguez, A. I.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, L. Martn-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

M. L. Nesterov, D. Martin-Cano, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Geometrically induced modification of surface plasmons in the optical and telecom regimes,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 423–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Opt. Express 18(2), 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, L. Martn-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: New plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels,” Phys. Rev. B 79(23), 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2063–2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gotschy, W.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
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G. Goubau, “Surface waves and their application to transmission lines,” J. Appl. Phys. 21(11), 1119 (1950).
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J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(6), 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(6), 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocabas, S. E.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koller, D. M.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L. K.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroute, Y.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latif, S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lazzarino, M.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liberale, C.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

List, E. J. W.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, C. Chen, G. P. Behrmann, and D. W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation in low index contrast photonic crystals in the millimeter wave regime,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1362–1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ly-Gagnon, D.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, L. Martn-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maksymov, I.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
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Maradudin, A. A.

D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface corrugation and surface-polariton binding in the infrared frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1569–1574 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Cano, D.

Martin-Moreno, L.

Martín-Moreno, L.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2063–2065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels,” Phys. Rev. B 79(23), 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martn-Moreno, L.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, L. Martn-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. L.

D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface corrugation and surface-polariton binding in the infrared frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1569–1574 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, E.

Murakowski, J. A.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahata, A.

Nesterov, M. L.

Nomura, W.

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, “Nanodot coupler with a surface plasmon polariton condenser for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(6), 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsu, M.

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, “Nanodot coupler with a surface plasmon polariton condenser for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patrini, M.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: New plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(6), 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

Z. Lu, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, C. Chen, G. P. Behrmann, and D. W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation in low index contrast photonic crystals in the millimeter wave regime,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1362–1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reil, F.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sáenz, J. J.

F. J. de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, “Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K. C.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G. J.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuetz, C. A.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, C. Chen, G. P. Behrmann, and D. W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation in low index contrast photonic crystals in the millimeter wave regime,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1362–1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Z. Lu, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, C. Chen, G. P. Behrmann, and D. W. Prather, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation in low index contrast photonic crystals in the millimeter wave regime,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1362–1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spasenovic, M.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, L.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a nearinfrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J. C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereus, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, L. Martn-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yatsui, T.

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, “Nanodot coupler with a surface plasmon polariton condenser for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, “Nanodot coupler with a surface plasmon polariton condenser for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 181108 (2005).
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Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091907 (2005).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The dispersion diagram of DSP waveguides. The second band is not shown in the figure. The parameters of the waveguides are d = 12.7 mm, a = 6.35mm, and h = 19.05mm. The width of the 2D DSP waveguide is assumed to be infinite; the width of the 3D DSP waveguide is w = 6.35 mm. The circles indicate the measured dispersion relation for the 3D DSP waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The fabricated 3D DSP waveguide. The measured mode profile (shown in intensity) in different directions: (b) Side (over rods, in x-z plane), (c) Cross section over a rod (in y-z plane), (d) Top view (over rods, in x-y plane), the dashed blue squares indicate the positions of the metal rods, (e) Cross section in a groove (in y-z plane), (f) Cross section along the side wall of a rod (in y-z plane).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Two DSP waveguides in parallel form a directional coupler. (b) The EM wave (shown in amplitude) propagates in the directional coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The integration of the 3D subwavelength DSP waveguide with a tapered DSP waveguide as input. (b) Measured intensity distribution when EM waves are coupled from a 2D DSP waveguide and a 3D DSP waveguide.

Equations (2)

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tan ( k 0 h ) n = S n 2 k 0 β n 2 k 0 2 = 1
δ d = [ k 0 a d tan ( k 0 h ) ] 1

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