Abstract

Femtosecond laser micromachining of glass material using low-energy, sub-ablation threshold pulses find numerous applications in the fields of integrated optics, lab-on-a-chips and microsystems in general. In this paper, we study the influence of the laser-deposited energy on the performance of the micromachining process. In particular, we show that the energy deposited in the substrate affects its etching rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal energy deposition value. These results are not only important from an industrial point-of-view but also provide new evidences supporting the essential role of densification and consequently stress-generation as the main driving factor promoting enhanced etching rate following laser exposure.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 26(19), 1516–1518 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Bellouard, A. Said, and P. Bado, “Integrating optics and micro-mechanics in a single substrate: a step toward monolithic integration in fused silica,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6635–6644 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6635 .
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2120–2129 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2120 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Schaffer, J. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4708 .
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    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, J.-C. Poulin, and S. Ani-Joseph, “Non reciprocal writing and chirality in femtosecond laser irradiated silica,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18354–18361 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-18354 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1726–1728 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19520–19534 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19520 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Bellouard, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Nanoindentation and birefringence measurements on fused silica specimen exposed to low-energy femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8360–8366 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8360 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Tomozawa, Y. Lee, and Y. Peng, “Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242(2-3), 104–109 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166–174 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Awazu and H. Kawazoe, “Strained Si–O–Si bonds in amorphous SiO2 materials: A family member of active centers in radio, photo, and chemical responses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6243–6262 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, J.-C. Poulin, and S. Ani-Joseph, “Non reciprocal writing and chirality in femtosecond laser irradiated silica,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18354–18361 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-18354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19520–19534 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19520 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. Bellouard, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Nanoindentation and birefringence measurements on fused silica specimen exposed to low-energy femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8360–8366 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8360 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Schaffer, J. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Awazu and H. Kawazoe, “Strained Si–O–Si bonds in amorphous SiO2 materials: A family member of active centers in radio, photo, and chemical responses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6243–6262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Tomozawa, Y. Lee, and Y. Peng, “Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242(2-3), 104–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ani-Joseph, S.

Applegate, R. W. A.

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, A.

Awazu, K.

K. Awazu and H. Kawazoe, “Strained Si–O–Si bonds in amorphous SiO2 materials: A family member of active centers in radio, photo, and chemical responses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6243–6262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19520–19534 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19520 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Nanoindentation and birefringence measurements on fused silica specimen exposed to low-energy femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8360–8366 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8360 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, and P. Bado, “Integrating optics and micro-mechanics in a single substrate: a step toward monolithic integration in fused silica,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6635–6644 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6635 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2120–2129 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2120 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barthel, E.

Bellouard, Y.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Bovatsek, J.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

Colomb, T.

Corkum, P. B.

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Depeursinge, C.

Dugan, M.

Dugan, M. A.

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eaton, S.

Florea, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

García, J.

C. Schaffer, J. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, Y.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hashimoto, S.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Hirao, K.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

Huser, T.

Ippen, E. P.

Ishikawa, I. S.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kawano, H.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, H.

K. Awazu and H. Kawazoe, “Strained Si–O–Si bonds in amorphous SiO2 materials: A family member of active centers in radio, photo, and chemical responses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6243–6262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiyama, S.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krol, D. M.

Lancry, M.

Laporta, P.

Lee, Y.

M. Tomozawa, Y. Lee, and Y. Peng, “Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242(2-3), 104–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Marr, D. W. M.

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. Schaffer, J. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Misawa, H.

Miura, K.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miwa, M.

Miyawaki, A.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morihira, Y.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oakey, J.

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osellame, R.

Peng, Y.

M. Tomozawa, Y. Lee, and Y. Peng, “Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242(2-3), 104–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

Poulin, J.-C.

Poumellec, B.

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramponi, R.

Rayner, D. M.

Risbud, S.

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

Sakakura, M.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C.

C. Schaffer, J. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Shimotsuma, Y.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

Squier, J.

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y. P.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R. S.

Tomozawa, M.

M. Tomozawa, Y. Lee, and Y. Peng, “Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242(2-3), 104–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vestad, T.

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K.

Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Schaffer, J. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Microdevices

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Awazu and H. Kawazoe, “Strained Si–O–Si bonds in amorphous SiO2 materials: A family member of active centers in radio, photo, and chemical responses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6243–6262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

M. Tomozawa, Y. Lee, and Y. Peng, “Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242(2-3), 104–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. C

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

R. W. A. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2120–2129 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2120 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4708 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, and P. Bado, “Integrating optics and micro-mechanics in a single substrate: a step toward monolithic integration in fused silica,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6635–6644 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6635 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Nanoindentation and birefringence measurements on fused silica specimen exposed to low-energy femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8360–8366 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8360 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, J.-C. Poulin, and S. Ani-Joseph, “Non reciprocal writing and chirality in femtosecond laser irradiated silica,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18354–18361 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-18354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19520–19534 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19520 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Monolithic integration in fused silica: When fluidics, mechanics and optics meet in a single substrate,” in International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (2009), pp. 445–450.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the femtosecond laser processing combined with chemical etching. In a first step, the material is exposed to the laser beam. Low energy pulses are typically used. No ablation is performed; rather the internal structure of the material is modified. In a second step, the exposed patterns are revealed by dipping the glass specimen in a chemical etching bath.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cut-view diagram showing the overlap of laser pulses non-linear absorption waists as the beam is moved along at a speed v. The frequency at which the pulses are emitted is f.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log-log plot of the deposited energy (net fluence) versus writing speed. Each point indicates actual measurements for various repetition rates. The pulse energy was kept the same for all experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical microscopy image of partially etched laser tracks for increasing deposited energy levels from 2.7 J/mm2 for the left-most laser line up to 550 J/mm2 for the right most line. As indicated in the figure, the laser polarization is perpendicular to the writing direction. Lines were written always in the same direction. The pulse energy was 215 nJ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Deposited energy versus etched length for various repetition rates as measured in an optical microscope. The laser polarization is transverse to the writing direction. The pulse energy (Ep) is 215 nJ. The specimen was etched for 4 hours in a 2.5% HF acid. Measurement errors are estimated to be +/− 10 microns for all points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM images (in BSE mode) of partially etched laser lines. The laser was propagating from the top to the bottom of the image. The writing directions were perpendicular to the image plane. The two left images correspond to a transverse polarization (with respect of the writing direction) and to energy deposited levels respectively of 10 J/mm2 and 550 J/mm2. The two right images correspond to a longitudinal polarization (with respect to the writing direction) and to energy deposited levels respectively of 10 J/mm2 and 550 J/mm2. The pulse energy was 215 nJ.

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