Abstract

A block-ciphered (M-ary) optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) can provide larger security than a conventional OCDM system based on bit ciphering. We propose a polarization multiplexed (POL-MUX) M-ary OCDM system and demonstrated 2.5 Gbps, POL-MUX 256 ( = 16X16)-ary OCDM transmission using a single multi-port optical encoder/decoder (E/D). We show that this architecture reduces the number of required optical codes and enhances the system confidentiality.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Comparative Study of Multiencoding Schemes for OCDM Using a Single Multiport Optical Encoder/Decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 559–561 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Manzacca, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of 8 x 10.7 Gbps asynchronous code-shift keying OCDMA with multi-port en/decoder for multidimensional optical code processing,” ECOC2006, 2006.
  3. T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 655–670 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. H. Shake, “Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(4), 1652–1663 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues OCDMA: a code-swiching sheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous Multiuser Coherent OCDMA System With Code-Shift-Keying and Balanced Detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1463–1470 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Secure optical bit- and block-cipher transmission using a single multiport encoder/decoder,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOFC 2008), JThA93, 2008.
  8. E. Narimanov and B. Wu, “Advanced Coding Techniques for Asynchronous Fiber-Optical CDMA,” 2005 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS)., JThE70, 2005.
  9. S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, and R. J. Runser, “A Novel Method for Increasing the Spectral Eficiency of Optical CDMA,” IEEE Globecom. 4, 2009–2013 (2005).
  10. R. Menendez, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Direct optical processing of M-ary code-shift keyed spectral phase encoded OCDMA,” J. Optical Netw. 6(5), 442–450 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s,16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 181–187 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Kataoka, T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of Secure 2.5Gbps, 256ary Polarization-Multiplexed OCDM transmission using Single Multi-port Encoder/Decoder,” Proc. CLEO 2009, CTuJ3, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, Jun. 2009.
  13. G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a Full Encoder/Decoder in the AWG Configuration for Code-Based Photonic Routers-Part I: Modeling and Design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2007 (3)

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous Multiuser Coherent OCDMA System With Code-Shift-Keying and Balanced Detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1463–1470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Comparative Study of Multiencoding Schemes for OCDM Using a Single Multiport Optical Encoder/Decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 559–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Menendez, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Direct optical processing of M-ary code-shift keyed spectral phase encoded OCDMA,” J. Optical Netw. 6(5), 442–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, and R. J. Runser, “A Novel Method for Increasing the Spectral Eficiency of Optical CDMA,” IEEE Globecom. 4, 2009–2013 (2005).

T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 655–670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Shake, “Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(4), 1652–1663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues OCDMA: a code-swiching sheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

R. Menendez, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Direct optical processing of M-ary code-shift keyed spectral phase encoded OCDMA,” J. Optical Netw. 6(5), 442–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cincotti, G.

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s,16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 181–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Comparative Study of Multiencoding Schemes for OCDM Using a Single Multiport Optical Encoder/Decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 559–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous Multiuser Coherent OCDMA System With Code-Shift-Keying and Balanced Detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1463–1470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a Full Encoder/Decoder in the AWG Configuration for Code-Based Photonic Routers-Part I: Modeling and Design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

R. Menendez, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Direct optical processing of M-ary code-shift keyed spectral phase encoded OCDMA,” J. Optical Netw. 6(5), 442–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, and R. J. Runser, “A Novel Method for Increasing the Spectral Eficiency of Optical CDMA,” IEEE Globecom. 4, 2009–2013 (2005).

Galli, S.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, and R. J. Runser, “A Novel Method for Increasing the Spectral Eficiency of Optical CDMA,” IEEE Globecom. 4, 2009–2013 (2005).

Jackel, J.

R. Menendez, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Direct optical processing of M-ary code-shift keyed spectral phase encoded OCDMA,” J. Optical Netw. 6(5), 442–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues OCDMA: a code-swiching sheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, N.

Kitayama, K.

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s,16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 181–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous Multiuser Coherent OCDMA System With Code-Shift-Keying and Balanced Detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1463–1470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Comparative Study of Multiencoding Schemes for OCDM Using a Single Multiport Optical Encoder/Decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 559–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a Full Encoder/Decoder in the AWG Configuration for Code-Based Photonic Routers-Part I: Modeling and Design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, T.

Leaird, D. E.

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues OCDMA: a code-swiching sheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manzacca, G.

G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Comparative Study of Multiencoding Schemes for OCDM Using a Single Multiport Optical Encoder/Decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 559–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Menendez, R.

R. Menendez, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Direct optical processing of M-ary code-shift keyed spectral phase encoded OCDMA,” J. Optical Netw. 6(5), 442–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, and R. J. Runser, “A Novel Method for Increasing the Spectral Eficiency of Optical CDMA,” IEEE Globecom. 4, 2009–2013 (2005).

Miyazaki, T.

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s,16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 181–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous Multiuser Coherent OCDMA System With Code-Shift-Keying and Balanced Detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1463–1470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, N.

Runser, R. J.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, and R. J. Runser, “A Novel Method for Increasing the Spectral Eficiency of Optical CDMA,” IEEE Globecom. 4, 2009–2013 (2005).

Shake, T. H.

Toliver, P.

R. Menendez, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Direct optical processing of M-ary code-shift keyed spectral phase encoded OCDMA,” J. Optical Netw. 6(5), 442–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s,16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 181–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Comparative Study of Multiencoding Schemes for OCDM Using a Single Multiport Optical Encoder/Decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 559–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous Multiuser Coherent OCDMA System With Code-Shift-Keying and Balanced Detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1463–1470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a Full Encoder/Decoder in the AWG Configuration for Code-Based Photonic Routers-Part I: Modeling and Design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s,16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 181–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous Multiuser Coherent OCDMA System With Code-Shift-Keying and Balanced Detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1463–1470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Comparative Study of Multiencoding Schemes for OCDM Using a Single Multiport Optical Encoder/Decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 559–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues OCDMA: a code-swiching sheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues OCDMA: a code-swiching sheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Globecom. (1)

S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, and R. J. Runser, “A Novel Method for Increasing the Spectral Eficiency of Optical CDMA,” IEEE Globecom. 4, 2009–2013 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous Multiuser Coherent OCDMA System With Code-Shift-Keying and Balanced Detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1463–1470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Comparative Study of Multiencoding Schemes for OCDM Using a Single Multiport Optical Encoder/Decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 559–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Optical Netw. (1)

R. Menendez, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Direct optical processing of M-ary code-shift keyed spectral phase encoded OCDMA,” J. Optical Netw. 6(5), 442–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

N. Kataoka, T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of Secure 2.5Gbps, 256ary Polarization-Multiplexed OCDM transmission using Single Multi-port Encoder/Decoder,” Proc. CLEO 2009, CTuJ3, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, Jun. 2009.

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Manzacca, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of 8 x 10.7 Gbps asynchronous code-shift keying OCDMA with multi-port en/decoder for multidimensional optical code processing,” ECOC2006, 2006.

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Secure optical bit- and block-cipher transmission using a single multiport encoder/decoder,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOFC 2008), JThA93, 2008.

E. Narimanov and B. Wu, “Advanced Coding Techniques for Asynchronous Fiber-Optical CDMA,” 2005 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS)., JThE70, 2005.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of M-ary OCDM (a) Conventional system (b) Polarization multiplexed system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Architecture of polarization-multiplexed 256-ary OCDM system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of polarization-multiplexed 256-ary OCDM transmission system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of polarization-multiplexed 256-ary OCDM receiver system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured BERs in case of the fixed and random patterns.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Number of trials to break the confidentiality with a COA (b) Number of trials necessary to break the confidentiality with a CPA.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Code Lookup Table

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