Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate monitoring of a fiber fuse in real time using an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). When a fuse starts, a weak reflection of light occurs from the leading edge of the fuse where plasma and voids are being formed in the core. In this work, we examined the possibility of monitoring a fiber fuse from a remote location using an OTDR. We demonstrate a method that allows us detect a fuse progressing at remote locations (over kilometers away). It was found to be effective even in the presence of strong spurious backscattering, such as spontaneous Raman scattering due to a strong continuous wave pump. Moreover, from the progress of the reflection edge monitored by the OTDR, the fuse velocity could be readily determined.

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References

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  1. R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 24(1), 47–49 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, “Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse,” Opt. Lett. 13(9), 767–769 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 174–176 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett. 36(5), 414–416 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse phenomenon in step-index single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(8), 1113–1121 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-I. Todoroki, “Origin of periodic void formation during fiber fuse,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6381–6389 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of High-power Endurance in Optical Fiber Links,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 17–22 (2003).
  9. K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, “Evaluation of high-power endurance of bend-insensitive fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.
  10. D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers,” Electron. Lett. 25(1), 33–34 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. S. Abedin, M. Nakazawa, and T. Miyazaki, “Backreflected radiation due to a propagating fiber fuse,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6525–6531 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. S. Abedin, and T. Morioka, “Remote detection of fiber fuse propagation in optical fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.
  13. K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, and M. Nakazawa, “Measurements of spectral broadening and Doppler shift of backreflections from a fiber fuse using heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3157–3159 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Ghatak, and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to fiber optics, Cambridge University Press, NewYork, 1998.

2009

2005

2004

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse phenomenon in step-index single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(8), 1113–1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 174–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of High-power Endurance in Optical Fiber Links,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 17–22 (2003).

2000

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett. 36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers,” Electron. Lett. 25(1), 33–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 24(1), 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, “Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse,” Opt. Lett. 13(9), 767–769 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abedin, K. S.

Asakawa, S.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 174–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse phenomenon in step-index single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(8), 1113–1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atobe, N.

N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers,” Electron. Lett. 25(1), 33–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 24(1), 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chamorovsky, Y. K.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers,” Electron. Lett. 25(1), 33–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, “Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse,” Opt. Lett. 13(9), 767–769 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, G. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 24(1), 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 174–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse phenomenon in step-index single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(8), 1113–1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

Nagase, R.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse phenomenon in step-index single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(8), 1113–1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 174–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, I.

N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Nishimura, N.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of High-power Endurance in Optical Fiber Links,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 17–22 (2003).

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett. 36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sasaki, H.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of High-power Endurance in Optical Fiber Links,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 17–22 (2003).

Seo, K.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of High-power Endurance in Optical Fiber Links,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 17–22 (2003).

Shiino, M.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of High-power Endurance in Optical Fiber Links,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 17–22 (2003).

Shuto, Y.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 174–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse phenomenon in step-index single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(8), 1113–1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sikora, E. S. R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett. 36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takaesu, F.

N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, S.

N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takasugi, H.

N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Todoroki, S.-I.

Tomita, N.

N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vorobjev, I. L.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett. 36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, S.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse phenomenon in step-index single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(8), 1113–1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 174–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuguchi, R.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of High-power Endurance in Optical Fiber Links,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 17–22 (2003).

Electron. Lett.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett. 36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers,” Electron. Lett. 25(1), 33–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 24(1), 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa Rev.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of High-power Endurance in Optical Fiber Links,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 17–22 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse phenomenon in step-index single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(8), 1113–1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 174–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, “Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 180–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

N. Tomita, H. Takasugi, N. Atobe, I. Nakamura, F. Takaesu, and S. Takashima, “Design and Performance of a Novel Automatic Fiber Line Testing System With OTDR for Optical Subscriber Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 717–726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Ghatak, and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to fiber optics, Cambridge University Press, NewYork, 1998.

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, “Evaluation of high-power endurance of bend-insensitive fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

K. S. Abedin, and T. Morioka, “Remote detection of fiber fuse propagation in optical fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. (a) Wavelengths of both high power laser and OTDR are close to 1.55 μm. (b) Wavelength of OTDR is overlapping with the Raman gain spectrum induced by the pump at 1480 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OTDR traces. Integration time was 19.6 sec, and each division in the traces corresponds to 5.1m. (a) Recorded during fuse propagation. (b) Recorded after the fuse was terminated; length of the fused fiber section was 10 m, (c) recorded after the fuse was terminated; length of the fused fiber section was shortened to 24 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OTDR traces. Integration time is 30 s. (a)-(e) corresponds to OTDR measurement taken with the bandpass filter, and (e)-(h) correspond to measurement taken without bandpass filter. Figures from top to bottom represent, OTDR traces taken with pump turned off (a and e), with pump turned on (b and f), during fuse propagation (c and g) and after terminating the fuse (d and h), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OTDR traces for a propagating fuse measured with integration times of 10 s, 20 s, and 30 s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fuse velocity versus launched pump power, plotted for wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1560 nm. The corresponding fuse threshold values are also shown by the vertical arrows.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio of fractional change in fuse threshold and fractional change in wavelength plotted as a function of V parameter.

Equations (1)

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d P T h P T h = ( V F . d F d V ) . d λ λ

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