Abstract

A forward-view optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning catheter has been developed based on a fiber-cantilever piezotube scanner by using a semi-resonant scan strategy for a better scan performance. A compact endoscope catheter was fabricated by using a tubular piezoelectric actuator with quartered electrodes in combination with a resonant fiber cantilever. A cantilever weight was attached to the fiber cantilever to reduce the resonance frequency down to 63 Hz, well in the desirable range for Fourier-domain OCT. The resonant-cantilever scanner was driven at semi-resonance frequencies that were well out of the resonance peak but within a range of partial resonance. This driving strategy has been found to minimize the phase difference between the two scan axes for a better scan stability against environmental perturbations as well as for a driving simplicity. By driving the two axes at slightly different frequencies, a low-order Lissajous pattern has been obtained for a 2D area scan. 3D OCT images have been successfully acquired in an acquisition time of 1.56 seconds for a tomogram volume of 2.2 × 2.2 × 2.1 mm3. They were reconstructed without any scan calibration by extracting the scan timing from the image data. In addition, it has been found that the Lissajous scan strategy provides a means to compensate the relative axial motion of a sample for a correct imaged morphology.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huo, J. Xi, Y. Wu, and X. Li, “Forward-viewing resonant fiber-optic scanning endoscope of appropriate scanning speed for 3D OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14375–14384 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-14-14375 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2007

2006

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. Vagners, P. G. Reinhall, and E. J. Seibel, “An error space controller for a resonating fiber scanner: simulation and implementation,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 128(4), 899–913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

2001

1997

Aguirre, A. D.

Ahn, Y.-C.

Bachman, M.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brenner, M.

Brezinski, M. E.

Chen, M.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Cobb, M. J.

Ding, Z.

Engelbrecht, C. J.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, L.

Fedder, G. K.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Guo, S.

Helmchen, F.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heng, X.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, P. R.

Huo, L.

Jung, W.

Kimmey, M. B.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, C. M.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.-P.

Li, X.

Liu, X.

McCormick, D. T.

McDowell, E. J.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, E. J.

Mukai, D. S.

Na, J.

Pan, Y.

Pitris, C.

Piyawattanametha, W.

Reinhall, P. G.

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. Vagners, P. G. Reinhall, and E. J. Seibel, “An error space controller for a resonating fiber scanner: simulation and implementation,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 128(4), 899–913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, P. G. Reinhall, J. Vagners, and E. J. Seibel, “A nonlinear state-space model of a resonating single fiber scanner for tracking control: theory and experiment,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 126(1), 88–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. Y.

Seibel, E. J.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. Vagners, P. G. Reinhall, and E. J. Seibel, “An error space controller for a resonating fiber scanner: simulation and implementation,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 128(4), 899–913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, P. G. Reinhall, J. Vagners, and E. J. Seibel, “A nonlinear state-space model of a resonating single fiber scanner for tracking control: theory and experiment,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 126(1), 88–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sepehr, A.

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. Vagners, P. G. Reinhall, and E. J. Seibel, “An error space controller for a resonating fiber scanner: simulation and implementation,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 128(4), 899–913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, P. G. Reinhall, J. Vagners, and E. J. Seibel, “A nonlinear state-space model of a resonating single fiber scanner for tracking control: theory and experiment,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 126(1), 88–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soper, T. D.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tien, N. C.

Tran, P. H.

Vagners, J.

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. Vagners, P. G. Reinhall, and E. J. Seibel, “An error space controller for a resonating fiber scanner: simulation and implementation,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 128(4), 899–913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, P. G. Reinhall, J. Vagners, and E. J. Seibel, “A nonlinear state-space model of a resonating single fiber scanner for tracking control: theory and experiment,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 126(1), 88–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wang, K.

Wang, Y.

Wong, B.

Wong, B. J. F.

Wu, J.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

Wu, T.

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Xie, H.

Xie, T.

Yang, C.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J Biophotonics

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, P. G. Reinhall, J. Vagners, and E. J. Seibel, “A nonlinear state-space model of a resonating single fiber scanner for tracking control: theory and experiment,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 126(1), 88–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. Vagners, P. G. Reinhall, and E. J. Seibel, “An error space controller for a resonating fiber scanner: simulation and implementation,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 128(4), 899–913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, Y.-C. Ahn, A. Sepehr, M. Brenner, B. Wong, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “In vivo three-dimensional spectral domain endoscopic optical coherence tomography using a microelectromechanical system mirror,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3239–3241 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-22-3239 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Min, J. Na, S. Y. Ryu, and B. H. Lee, “Single-body lensed-fiber scanning probe actuated by magnetic force for optical imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1897–1899 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-12-1897 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(21), 1618–1620 (1997), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-21-1618 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, H. Xie, and G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1966–1968 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-24-1966 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-11-1236 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, “Rapid-scanning forward-imaging miniature endoscope for real-time optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1763–1765 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-15-1763 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, S. Guo, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Low-voltage polymer-based scanning cantilever for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 53–55 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-1-53 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. W. de Silva, Vibration: Fundametals and Practice, 2nd Ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

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