Abstract

We explore slow light behavior of a specially designed optical waveguide by carrying out structural dispersion using numerical techniques. The structure proposed is composed of square-lattice photonic crystal waveguide integrated with side-coupled cavities. We report three orders of magnitude reduction in group velocity at aroundυg0.0008c with strongly suppressed group velocity dispersion. The analysis is performed by using both plane-wave expansion and finite-difference time-domain methods. For the first time, we succeeded to show such a low group velocity in photonic structures. Slow light pulse propagation accompanied by light tunneling between each cavity is observed. These achievements show the feasibility of photonic devices to generate extremely large group index which in turn will eventually pave the way to new frontiers in nonlinear optics, optical buffers and low threshold lasers.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. B. Khurgin, “Slow light in various media: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 2(3), 287–318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ustun, L. Ayas, and H. Kurt, “Slow light photonic crystal waveguides with adjustable group index and bandwidth values,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2010).

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

C. Martijn de Sterke, K. B. Dossou, T. P. White, L. C. Botten, and R. C. McPhedran, “Efficient coupling into slow light photonic crystal waveguide without transition region: role of evanescent modes,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17338–17343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Khayam and H. Benisty, “General recipe for flatbands in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14634–14648 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

2007 (5)

2006 (2)

2005 (5)

2004 (3)

D. Mori and T. Baba, “Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1101–1103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, “Optical all-pass filters for phase response design with applications for dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 994–996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, J.

Altug, H.

Ayas, L.

K. Ustun, L. Ayas, and H. Kurt, “Slow light photonic crystal waveguides with adjustable group index and bandwidth values,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2010).

Baba, T.

Beggs, D. M.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, P. I.

Botten, L. C.

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cambournac, C.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Corcoran, B.

De La Rue, R. M.

de Sterke, C. M.

Dossou, K. B.

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Eich, M.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

Frandsen, L. H.

Gaeta, A. L.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gnan, M.

Gogna, P.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herráez, M. G.

Hughes, S.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.

Joannopoulos, J.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Slow-light, band-edge waveguides for tunable time delays,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7145–7159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S.

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Slow-light, band-edge waveguides for tunable time delays,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7145–7159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawaaski, T.

Khayam, O.

Khurgin, J. B.

Krauss, T. F.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, D. Pudo, B. J. Eggleton, T. F. Krauss, D. J. Moss, L. O’Faolain, M. Pelusi, and T. P. White, “Nonlinear loss dynamics in a silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1073–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, “Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(9), 2666–2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. O’Faolain, T. P. White, D. O’Brien, X. Yuan, M. D. Settle, and T. F. Krauss, “Dependence of extrinsic loss on group velocity in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13129–13138 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, P.-C.

Kubo, S.

Kurt, H.

K. Ustun, L. Ayas, and H. Kurt, “Slow light photonic crystal waveguides with adjustable group index and bandwidth values,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2010).

H. Kurt, H. Benisty, T. Melo, O. Khayam, and C. Cambournac, “Slow-light regime and critical coupling in highly multimode corrugated waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), C1–C14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

Lenz, G.

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, “Optical all-pass filters for phase response design with applications for dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 994–996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Loncar, M.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, “Optical all-pass filters for phase response design with applications for dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 994–996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martijn de Sterke, C.

McNab, S. J.

McPhedran, R. C.

Melo, T.

Monat, C.

Mori, D.

Moss, D. J.

O’Brien, D.

O’Faolain, L.

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M.

Petrov, A. Y.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pottier, P.

Povinelli, M. L.

Pudo, D.

Qiu, Y.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

Scherer, A.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, S.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Settle, M. D.

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. Y.

Thévenaz, L.

Tucker, R. S.

Ustun, K.

K. Ustun, L. Ayas, and H. Kurt, “Slow light photonic crystal waveguides with adjustable group index and bandwidth values,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2010).

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vuckovic, J.

Walker, J.

Wang, F.

White, T. P.

Yoshie, T.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

Zhu, Z.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Mori and T. Baba, “Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1101–1103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, “Optical all-pass filters for phase response design with applications for dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 994–996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

T. F. Krauss, “Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(9), 2666–2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic drawing of photonic crystal (PC) structure and the dispersion diagram are shown in (a) and (b), respectively. The electric field distribution of the relevant mode, C is shown in (c). The super-cell periodicity has taken to be a = 3a.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The enlarged views of the modes B, A and C are plotted in (a), (b) and (c), respectively. (d) Group index spectrum of the interested mode C. The inset is the close look up of group index for certain frequency interval.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The delay information of Gaussian pulse in slow light structure. (b) The intensity profiles of electric field at two selected detection points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The time snapshot of fast mode’s e-field profile while propagating in a standard PCW. The same type of plot as in (a) is shown in (b) except that the waveguide structure sustains slow light mode.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Averaged group index variation

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