Abstract

A hybrid electro-optic (EO) polymer phase modulator with a 6 μm coplanar electrode gap was realized on ion exchange glass substrates. The critical alignment steps which may be required for hybrid optoelectronic devices were eliminated with a simple alignment-free fabrication technique. The low loss adiabatic transition from glass to EO polymer waveguide was enabled by gray scale patterning of novel EO polymer, AJLY. Total insertion loss of 5 dB and electrode gap of 8 μm was obtained for an optimized device design. EO polymer poling at 135 °C and 75 V/μm was demonstrated for the first time on a phosphate glass substrate and was enabled by the sol-gel buffer layer.

© 2010 OSA

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J. D. Luo, X. H. Zhou, A. K. Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, R. Himmelhuber, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “High Deltan strip-loaded electro-optic polymer waveguide modulator with low insertion loss,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3316–3321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Della Valle, A. Festa, G. Sorbello, K. Ennser, C. Cassagnetes, D. Barbier, S. Taccheo, “Single-mode and high power waveguide lasers fabricated by ion-exchange,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12334–12341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. Song, H. C. Song, W. H. Steier, C. H. Cox, “Analysis and demonstration of Mach-Zehnder polymer modulators using in-plane coplanar waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, A. P. Leite, “Influence of temperature and environment humidity on the transmission spectrum of sol-gel hybrid channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 430–435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Yliniemi, J. Albert, Q. Wang, S. Honkanen, “UV-exposed Bragg gratings for laser applications in silver-sodium ion-exchanged phosphate glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2898–2903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

2004 (2)

L. Eldada, “Optical communication components,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(3), 575–593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, N. Peyghambarian, “Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode-diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1332–1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Ahn, W. H. Steier, Y. H. Kuo, M. C. Oh, H. J. Lee, C. Zhang, H. R. Fetterman, “Integration of electro-optic polymer modulators with low-loss fluorinated polymer waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(23), 2109–2111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. S. Wang, D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Q. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “40-GHz polymer electrooptic phase modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(6), 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: Temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sudbo, “Numerically stable formulation of the transverse resonance method for vector mode-field calculations in dielectric wave-guides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(3), 342–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electrooptic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. W.

Albert, J.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Auxier, J.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Auxier, J. M.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

Bashar, A.

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: Temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carriere, J.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Cassagnetes, C.

Castro, J.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Chang, D. H.

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A. T.

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. T.

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wang, D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Q. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “40-GHz polymer electrooptic phase modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(6), 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Conti, G. N.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C. H.

R. Song, H. C. Song, W. H. Steier, C. H. Cox, “Analysis and demonstration of Mach-Zehnder polymer modulators using in-plane coplanar waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wang, D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Q. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “40-GHz polymer electrooptic phase modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(6), 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

DeRose, C. T.

C. T. DeRose, R. Himmelhuber, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “High Deltan strip-loaded electro-optic polymer waveguide modulator with low insertion loss,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3316–3321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, “Optical communication components,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(3), 575–593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ennser, K.

Erlig, H.

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Festa, A.

Fetterman, H. R.

S. W. Ahn, W. H. Steier, Y. H. Kuo, M. C. Oh, H. J. Lee, C. Zhang, H. R. Fetterman, “Integration of electro-optic polymer modulators with low-loss fluorinated polymer waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(23), 2109–2111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wang, D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Q. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “40-GHz polymer electrooptic phase modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(6), 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frantz, J.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, D.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Geraghty, D. F.

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, N. Peyghambarian, “Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode-diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1332–1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Himmelhuber, R.

Honkanen, S.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

S. Yliniemi, J. Albert, Q. Wang, S. Honkanen, “UV-exposed Bragg gratings for laser applications in silver-sodium ion-exchanged phosphate glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2898–2903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, N. Peyghambarian, “Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode-diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1332–1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. D.

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

C. T. DeRose, R. Himmelhuber, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “High Deltan strip-loaded electro-optic polymer waveguide modulator with low insertion loss,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3316–3321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Luo, X. H. Zhou, A. K. Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S. B.

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Kuo, Y. H.

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

Leite, A. P.

O. Soppera, P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, A. P. Leite, “Influence of temperature and environment humidity on the transmission spectrum of sol-gel hybrid channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 430–435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

C. T. DeRose, R. Himmelhuber, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “High Deltan strip-loaded electro-optic polymer waveguide modulator with low insertion loss,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3316–3321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

J. D. Luo, X. H. Zhou, A. K. Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Madasamy, P.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, N. Peyghambarian, “Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode-diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1332–1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electrooptic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marques, P. V. S.

O. Soppera, P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, A. P. Leite, “Influence of temperature and environment humidity on the transmission spectrum of sol-gel hybrid channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 430–435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

C. T. DeRose, R. Himmelhuber, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “High Deltan strip-loaded electro-optic polymer waveguide modulator with low insertion loss,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3316–3321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D. L.

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: Temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8471–8479 (1993).
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Moreira, P. J.

O. Soppera, P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, A. P. Leite, “Influence of temperature and environment humidity on the transmission spectrum of sol-gel hybrid channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 430–435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morrell, M.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morrell, M. M.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

C. T. DeRose, R. Himmelhuber, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “High Deltan strip-loaded electro-optic polymer waveguide modulator with low insertion loss,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3316–3321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. C.

S. W. Ahn, W. H. Steier, Y. H. Kuo, M. C. Oh, H. J. Lee, C. Zhang, H. R. Fetterman, “Integration of electro-optic polymer modulators with low-loss fluorinated polymer waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(23), 2109–2111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

C. T. DeRose, R. Himmelhuber, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “High Deltan strip-loaded electro-optic polymer waveguide modulator with low insertion loss,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3316–3321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, N. Peyghambarian, “Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode-diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1332–1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poyhonen, P.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schulzgen, A.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sen, S.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seneschal, K.

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y. Q.

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
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W. S. Wang, D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Q. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “40-GHz polymer electrooptic phase modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(6), 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. C.

R. Song, H. C. Song, W. H. Steier, C. H. Cox, “Analysis and demonstration of Mach-Zehnder polymer modulators using in-plane coplanar waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

R. Song, H. C. Song, W. H. Steier, C. H. Cox, “Analysis and demonstration of Mach-Zehnder polymer modulators using in-plane coplanar waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soppera, O.

O. Soppera, P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, A. P. Leite, “Influence of temperature and environment humidity on the transmission spectrum of sol-gel hybrid channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 430–435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, G.

Stähelin, M.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: Temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

R. Song, H. C. Song, W. H. Steier, C. H. Cox, “Analysis and demonstration of Mach-Zehnder polymer modulators using in-plane coplanar waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Ahn, W. H. Steier, Y. H. Kuo, M. C. Oh, H. J. Lee, C. Zhang, H. R. Fetterman, “Integration of electro-optic polymer modulators with low-loss fluorinated polymer waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(23), 2109–2111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wang, D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Q. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “40-GHz polymer electrooptic phase modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(6), 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sudbo, A. S.

A. S. Sudbo, “Numerically stable formulation of the transverse resonance method for vector mode-field calculations in dielectric wave-guides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(3), 342–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Szep, A.

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electrooptic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: Temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Volksen, W.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: Temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: Temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Wang, W. S.

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wang, D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Q. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “40-GHz polymer electrooptic phase modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(6), 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

West, B. R.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yliniemi, S.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

S. Yliniemi, J. Albert, Q. Wang, S. Honkanen, “UV-exposed Bragg gratings for laser applications in silver-sodium ion-exchanged phosphate glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2898–2903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

S. W. Ahn, W. H. Steier, Y. H. Kuo, M. C. Oh, H. J. Lee, C. Zhang, H. R. Fetterman, “Integration of electro-optic polymer modulators with low-loss fluorinated polymer waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(23), 2109–2111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. H.

J. D. Luo, X. H. Zhou, A. K. Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. T. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. S. Wang, Y. Q. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, P. Poyhonen, D. L. Mathine, A. Bashar, P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, A. K. Y. Jen, J. Wu, “Poling of soda-lime glass for hybrid glass/polymer electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(9), 1086–1088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, N. Peyghambarian, “Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode-diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1332–1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electrooptic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Song, H. C. Song, W. H. Steier, C. H. Cox, “Analysis and demonstration of Mach-Zehnder polymer modulators using in-plane coplanar waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

W. S. Wang, D. T. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Q. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “40-GHz polymer electrooptic phase modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(6), 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1051–1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Hu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 657–659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sudbo, “Numerically stable formulation of the transverse resonance method for vector mode-field calculations in dielectric wave-guides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(3), 342–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: Temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. D. Luo, X. H. Zhou, A. K. Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Soppera, P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, A. P. Leite, “Influence of temperature and environment humidity on the transmission spectrum of sol-gel hybrid channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 430–435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B (1)

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses-European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Eldada, “Optical communication components,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(3), 575–593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

I. E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and P. N, “Alignment-free Fabrication of a Hybrid Electro-Optic Polymer Modulator Platform,” in Integrated Photonics Research (Monterey, CA, 2010).

D. Bosc, P. Benech, T. Smail, and A. Morand, “Hybrid integrated electro-optical modulator of the pockels effect type,” in Google Patents, U. S. Patent, ed. (France Telecom, France, 2001).

H. Zhong, T. Suning, A. Dechang, S. Lin, L. Xuejun, S. Zan, Z. Qingjun, and C. R. T., “High-speed traveling-wave electrodes for polymeric electro-optic modulators,” (Proc. of SPIE, 1999), p. 354.

D. S. E. Chemla, Nonlinear optical properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (1987).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a)3D illustration of a hybrid EO polymer/glass modulator. ltaper is the length of the adiabatic transition and Lactive is the length of the active section. wi is the width of the coupling region, wo is the width of the EO polymer core, and we is the width of electrode gap. The buffer layer thickness is given with hb and EO polymer film (green) thickness by hc b) The 3D surface profile of the gray scale patterned polymer physical taper (1.3 μm thick) c) The near field image of the optical mode at 1550 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The simulated electrode induced loss due to the 100 nm gold electrode layer with respect to EO polymer thickness, hc. wo was chosen to be 1 μm and we = 5 μm. The inset a) shows the mode shape of EO polymer waveguide (refractive index nEOpol = 1.7) for hc equals 0.4, 1 and 1.6 μm. The inset b) shows the cross section of the modeled device geometry, yellow color indicates the electrode layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Alignment free hybrid modulator fabrication steps (light blue buffer layer material can be i.e. SiO2, ZPU 430 or sol-gel).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top microscope view of a test sample with sol-gel buffer layer and Cr electrodes. The end facet is prepared by cleaving the glass. The electrode spacing of 8 μm was obtained by 15 min overetching. Minimum feature size on the inset is about 1 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The variation of r33 with respect to poling voltage. The poling temperature was 135 °C. The solid line is the best linear fit to the measured data. The error bars indicate the standard deviation of the three measurements at the same poling conditions. Measurements were done at 1340 nm and r33 values at 1550 nm were calculated by using two level model. The red cone represents the uncertainty in the calculation due to error in the actual measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The oscilloscope output of modulation signal (red) and detected optical signal (blue). Vπ = 16 V.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrical and fabrication characteristics of different buffer layers

Metrics