Abstract

Directional control of received infrared radiation is demonstrated with a phased-array antenna connected by a coplanar strip transmission line to a metal-oxide-metal (MOM) tunnel diode. We implement a MOM diode to ensure that the measured response originates from the interference of infrared antenna currents at specific locations in the array. The reception angle of the antenna is altered by shifting the diode position along the transmission line connecting the antenna elements. By fabricating the devices on a quarter wave dielectric layer above a ground plane, narrow beam widths of 35° FWHM in power and reception angles of ± 50° are achieved with minimal side lobe contributions. Measured radiation patterns at 10.6 μm are substantiated by electromagnetic simulations as well as an analytic interference model.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Middlebrook, P. Krenz, B. Lail, and G. Boreman,, “Infrared Phased-Array Antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(3), 719–723 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  5. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Antenna length and polarization response of antenna-coupled MOM diode infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(3), 182–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Krenz, B. Slovick, J. Bean, and G. Boreman, “Alignment procedures for radiation pattern measurements of antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Opt. Eng. 49(4), 033607-1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

B. Tiwari, J. A. Bean, G. Szakmány, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Controlled etching and regrowth of tunnel oxide for antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), 2153–2160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Long wave infrared detection using dipole antenna-coupled metal–oxide–metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C. Middlebrook, P. Krenz, B. Lail, and G. Boreman,, “Infrared Phased-Array Antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(3), 719–723 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Ginn, B. Lail, D. Shelton, J. Tharp, W. Folks, and G. Boreman, “Characterizing Infrared Frequency Selective Surfaces on Dispersive Media,” ACES J. 22(1), 184–188 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Abdel-Rahman, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes for dual-band detection at 92.5 GHz and 28 THz,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Codreanu, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Detection Mechanisms in microstrip dipole antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44(3), 155–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

C. Fumeaux, J. Alda, and G. D. Boreman, “Lithographic antennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 24(22), 1629–1631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Codreanu, C. Fumeaux, D. Spencer, and G. Boreman, “Microstrip antenna-coupled infrared detector,” Electron. Lett. 35(25), 2166–2167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. B. Rutledge and M. S. Muha, “Imaging antenna arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 30(4), 535–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

S. Y. Yang, T. Izawa, and T. K. Gustafson, “Coupling characteristics of thin-film metal-oxide-metal diodes at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(9), 481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Faris, B. Fan, and T. K. Gustafson, “Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 629–631 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abdel-Rahman, M.

M. Abdel-Rahman, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes for dual-band detection at 92.5 GHz and 28 THz,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alda, J.

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, J. Alda, and G. D. Boreman, “Lithographic antennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 24(22), 1629–1631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bean, J.

J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Antenna length and polarization response of antenna-coupled MOM diode infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(3), 182–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Krenz, B. Slovick, J. Bean, and G. Boreman, “Alignment procedures for radiation pattern measurements of antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Opt. Eng. 49(4), 033607-1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bean, A. Weeks, and G. Boreman, “Performance optimization of antenna-coupled Al/AlOX/Pt tunnel diode infrared detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. submitted.

J. Bean, B. Slovick, and G. Boreman, “Influence of substrate configuration on the angular response pattern of infrared antennas,” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

Bean, J. A.

J. A. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Long wave infrared detection using dipole antenna-coupled metal–oxide–metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiwari, J. A. Bean, G. Szakmány, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Controlled etching and regrowth of tunnel oxide for antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), 2153–2160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, G.

J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Antenna length and polarization response of antenna-coupled MOM diode infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(3), 182–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, G. H.

J. A. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Long wave infrared detection using dipole antenna-coupled metal–oxide–metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiwari, J. A. Bean, G. Szakmány, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Controlled etching and regrowth of tunnel oxide for antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), 2153–2160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G.

P. Krenz, B. Slovick, J. Bean, and G. Boreman, “Alignment procedures for radiation pattern measurements of antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Opt. Eng. 49(4), 033607-1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ginn, B. Lail, D. Shelton, J. Tharp, W. Folks, and G. Boreman, “Characterizing Infrared Frequency Selective Surfaces on Dispersive Media,” ACES J. 22(1), 184–188 (2007).

M. Abdel-Rahman, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes for dual-band detection at 92.5 GHz and 28 THz,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Codreanu, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Detection Mechanisms in microstrip dipole antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44(3), 155–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Codreanu, C. Fumeaux, D. Spencer, and G. Boreman, “Microstrip antenna-coupled infrared detector,” Electron. Lett. 35(25), 2166–2167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Bean, A. Weeks, and G. Boreman, “Performance optimization of antenna-coupled Al/AlOX/Pt tunnel diode infrared detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. submitted.

J. Bean, B. Slovick, and G. Boreman, “Influence of substrate configuration on the angular response pattern of infrared antennas,” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

Boreman, G. D.

Boreman,, G.

C. Middlebrook, P. Krenz, B. Lail, and G. Boreman,, “Infrared Phased-Array Antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(3), 719–723 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buller, W.

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Codreanu, I.

I. Codreanu, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Detection Mechanisms in microstrip dipole antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44(3), 155–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Codreanu and G. D. Boreman, “Influence of dielectric substrate on the responsivity of microstrip dipole-antenna-coupled infrared microbolometers,” Appl. Opt. 41(10), 1835–1840 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Codreanu, C. Fumeaux, D. Spencer, and G. Boreman, “Microstrip antenna-coupled infrared detector,” Electron. Lett. 35(25), 2166–2167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K.

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, B.

S. M. Faris, B. Fan, and T. K. Gustafson, “Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 629–631 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Faris, S. M.

S. M. Faris, B. Fan, and T. K. Gustafson, “Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 629–631 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fay, P.

J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Antenna length and polarization response of antenna-coupled MOM diode infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(3), 182–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Long wave infrared detection using dipole antenna-coupled metal–oxide–metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiwari, J. A. Bean, G. Szakmány, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Controlled etching and regrowth of tunnel oxide for antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), 2153–2160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Folks, W.

J. Ginn, B. Lail, D. Shelton, J. Tharp, W. Folks, and G. Boreman, “Characterizing Infrared Frequency Selective Surfaces on Dispersive Media,” ACES J. 22(1), 184–188 (2007).

Fumeaux, C.

I. Codreanu, C. Fumeaux, D. Spencer, and G. Boreman, “Microstrip antenna-coupled infrared detector,” Electron. Lett. 35(25), 2166–2167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, J. Alda, and G. D. Boreman, “Lithographic antennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 24(22), 1629–1631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ginn, J.

J. Ginn, B. Lail, D. Shelton, J. Tharp, W. Folks, and G. Boreman, “Characterizing Infrared Frequency Selective Surfaces on Dispersive Media,” ACES J. 22(1), 184–188 (2007).

González, F.

M. Abdel-Rahman, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes for dual-band detection at 92.5 GHz and 28 THz,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Codreanu, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Detection Mechanisms in microstrip dipole antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44(3), 155–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, T. K.

S. M. Faris, B. Fan, and T. K. Gustafson, “Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 629–631 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, T. Izawa, and T. K. Gustafson, “Coupling characteristics of thin-film metal-oxide-metal diodes at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(9), 481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Izawa, T.

S. Y. Yang, T. Izawa, and T. K. Gustafson, “Coupling characteristics of thin-film metal-oxide-metal diodes at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(9), 481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

Kadoya, Y.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kosako, T.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, P.

P. Krenz, B. Slovick, J. Bean, and G. Boreman, “Alignment procedures for radiation pattern measurements of antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Opt. Eng. 49(4), 033607-1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Middlebrook, P. Krenz, B. Lail, and G. Boreman,, “Infrared Phased-Array Antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(3), 719–723 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, P. M.

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, and G. D. Boreman, “Calibration of Lead-Line Response Contribution in Measured Radiation Patterns of IR Dipole Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lail, B.

C. Middlebrook, P. Krenz, B. Lail, and G. Boreman,, “Infrared Phased-Array Antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(3), 719–723 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ginn, B. Lail, D. Shelton, J. Tharp, W. Folks, and G. Boreman, “Characterizing Infrared Frequency Selective Surfaces on Dispersive Media,” ACES J. 22(1), 184–188 (2007).

Lail, B. A.

P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, and G. D. Boreman, “Calibration of Lead-Line Response Contribution in Measured Radiation Patterns of IR Dipole Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Lee, A. W.

Middlebrook, C.

C. Middlebrook, P. Krenz, B. Lail, and G. Boreman,, “Infrared Phased-Array Antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(3), 719–723 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muha, M. S.

D. B. Rutledge and M. S. Muha, “Imaging antenna arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 30(4), 535–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Olmon, R. L.

Porod, W.

J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Antenna length and polarization response of antenna-coupled MOM diode infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(3), 182–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Long wave infrared detection using dipole antenna-coupled metal–oxide–metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiwari, J. A. Bean, G. Szakmány, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Controlled etching and regrowth of tunnel oxide for antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), 2153–2160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

Roggemann, M.

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rutledge, D. B.

D. B. Rutledge and M. S. Muha, “Imaging antenna arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 30(4), 535–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, D.

J. Ginn, B. Lail, D. Shelton, J. Tharp, W. Folks, and G. Boreman, “Characterizing Infrared Frequency Selective Surfaces on Dispersive Media,” ACES J. 22(1), 184–188 (2007).

Slovick, B.

P. Krenz, B. Slovick, J. Bean, and G. Boreman, “Alignment procedures for radiation pattern measurements of antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Opt. Eng. 49(4), 033607-1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bean, B. Slovick, and G. Boreman, “Influence of substrate configuration on the angular response pattern of infrared antennas,” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

Spencer, D.

I. Codreanu, C. Fumeaux, D. Spencer, and G. Boreman, “Microstrip antenna-coupled infrared detector,” Electron. Lett. 35(25), 2166–2167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Subotic, N.

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szakmany, G.

J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Antenna length and polarization response of antenna-coupled MOM diode infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(3), 182–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Szakmány, G.

B. Tiwari, J. A. Bean, G. Szakmány, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Controlled etching and regrowth of tunnel oxide for antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), 2153–2160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tharp, J.

J. Ginn, B. Lail, D. Shelton, J. Tharp, W. Folks, and G. Boreman, “Characterizing Infrared Frequency Selective Surfaces on Dispersive Media,” ACES J. 22(1), 184–188 (2007).

Tiwari, B.

J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Antenna length and polarization response of antenna-coupled MOM diode infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(3), 182–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Long wave infrared detection using dipole antenna-coupled metal–oxide–metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiwari, J. A. Bean, G. Szakmány, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Controlled etching and regrowth of tunnel oxide for antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), 2153–2160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeks, A.

J. Bean, A. Weeks, and G. Boreman, “Performance optimization of antenna-coupled Al/AlOX/Pt tunnel diode infrared detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. submitted.

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, T. Izawa, and T. K. Gustafson, “Coupling characteristics of thin-film metal-oxide-metal diodes at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(9), 481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACES J. (1)

J. Ginn, B. Lail, D. Shelton, J. Tharp, W. Folks, and G. Boreman, “Characterizing Infrared Frequency Selective Surfaces on Dispersive Media,” ACES J. 22(1), 184–188 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Y. Yang, T. Izawa, and T. K. Gustafson, “Coupling characteristics of thin-film metal-oxide-metal diodes at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(9), 481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Faris, B. Fan, and T. K. Gustafson, “Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 629–631 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Abdel-Rahman, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes for dual-band detection at 92.5 GHz and 28 THz,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Codreanu, C. Fumeaux, D. Spencer, and G. Boreman, “Microstrip antenna-coupled infrared detector,” Electron. Lett. 35(25), 2166–2167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Bean, A. Weeks, and G. Boreman, “Performance optimization of antenna-coupled Al/AlOX/Pt tunnel diode infrared detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. submitted.

P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, and G. D. Boreman, “Calibration of Lead-Line Response Contribution in Measured Radiation Patterns of IR Dipole Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

D. B. Rutledge and M. S. Muha, “Imaging antenna arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 30(4), 535–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

I. Codreanu, F. González, and G. Boreman, “Detection Mechanisms in microstrip dipole antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44(3), 155–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Antenna length and polarization response of antenna-coupled MOM diode infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(3), 182–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

C. Middlebrook, M. Roggemann, G. Boreman, N. Subotic, K. Cooper, W. Buller, W. Yang, and J. Alda, “Measurement of the Mutual Coherence Function of an Incoherent Infrared Field with a Gold Nano-wire Dipole Antenna Array,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(2), 179–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

B. Tiwari, J. A. Bean, G. Szakmány, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Controlled etching and regrowth of tunnel oxide for antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), 2153–2160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. H. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod, “Long wave infrared detection using dipole antenna-coupled metal–oxide–metal diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Middlebrook, P. Krenz, B. Lail, and G. Boreman,, “Infrared Phased-Array Antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(3), 719–723 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Krenz, B. Slovick, J. Bean, and G. Boreman, “Alignment procedures for radiation pattern measurements of antenna-coupled infrared detectors,” Opt. Eng. 49(4), 033607-1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997).

E. L. Dereniak, and D. G. Crowe, Optical Radiation Detectors, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model of the antenna/substrate configuration and definition of terms. Superset image shows the aluminum-platinum overlap and the aluminum oxide barrier. The angle θ is measured in the plane perpendicular to the dipoles (H-plane).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrograph of the phased-array antenna with (top) a centered diode and (bottom) with the diode shifted by d = 3.3 μm. Superset SEM of the MOM diode shows an overlap that is circular in shape and approximately 100 nm in diameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and simulated radiation pattern (linear in power) of a single dipole on a 1.8 μm BCB stand-off layer above a ground plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and simulated radiation patterns (linear in power) of a dipole pair antenna on a 1.8 μm BCB stand-off layer above a ground plane with the diode shifted (a) d = 0 μm, (b) d = 0.9 μm, (c) d = 1.8 μm and (d) d = 3.3 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and simulated response angle as a function of the diode shift to antenna spacing ratio d / L. All devices are fabricated on a fixed 1.8 μm BCB stand-off layer above a ground plane.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 π λ 0 L sin θ m 2 π λ 0 2 n m d = 2 π m ,
θ 0 = sin 1 ( 2 n 0 d L ) .
V ( t ) = V b + V 0 cos ( 2 π f t ) ,
I r = 1 4 d 2 I d V 2 | V = V b V 0 2 .

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