Abstract

A tunable photonic crystal (PhC) based on the capillary action of liquid is demonstrated in this work. The porous silicon-based photonic crystal (PSiPhC) features periodic porosity and is fabricated by electrochemical etching on 6” silicon wafer followed by hydrophobic modification on the silicon surface. The capillary action is achieved by varying the mixture ratio of liquids with high and low surface tension, yielding either capillary attraction or capillary repulsion in the nanoscale voids of the PSiPhC. By delivering the liquid mixture into and out of the voids of the PSiPhC, the reflective color of the PSiPhC can be dynamically tuned.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(5), 967–970 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Yoshino, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, and A. Kose, “Mechanical tuning of the optical properties of plastic opal as a photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 7A), L786–L788 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Xu, G. Friedman, K. D. Humfeld, S. A. Majetich, and S. A. Asher, “Synthesis and utilization of monodisperse superparamagnetic colloidal particles for magnetically controllable photonic crystals,” Chem. Mater. 14(3), 1249–1256 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Fudouzi and Y. Xia, “Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers,” Langmuir 19(23), 9653–9660 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S. T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1236–1242 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 932–934 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627–3629 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Li, W. Huang, and Y. Han, “Tunable photonic crystals by mixed liquids,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 279(1-3), 213–217 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Lehmann, R. Stengl, and A. Luigart, “On the morphology and the electrochemical formation mechanism of mesoporous silicon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69–70, 11–22 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Mazzoleni and L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2983–2985 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Vhquez, E. Alvarez, and J. M. Navaza, “Surface Tension of Alcohol + Water from 20 to 50 °C,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 40(3), 611–614 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. H. Yang, C. Y. Chiu, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Investigation and Application of an artificially hybrid-structured surface with ultrahydrophobic and anti-sticking character,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 085022–085033 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).
  15. C. Ishino, K. Okumura, and D. Quéré, “Wetting transitions on rough surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 68(3), 419–425 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Z. H. Yang, C. Y. Chiu, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Investigation and Application of an artificially hybrid-structured surface with ultrahydrophobic and anti-sticking character,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 085022–085033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. Li, W. Huang, and Y. Han, “Tunable photonic crystals by mixed liquids,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 279(1-3), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S. T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1236–1242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. Ishino, K. Okumura, and D. Quéré, “Wetting transitions on rough surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 68(3), 419–425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Fudouzi and Y. Xia, “Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers,” Langmuir 19(23), 9653–9660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Xu, G. Friedman, K. D. Humfeld, S. A. Majetich, and S. A. Asher, “Synthesis and utilization of monodisperse superparamagnetic colloidal particles for magnetically controllable photonic crystals,” Chem. Mater. 14(3), 1249–1256 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627–3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Lehmann, R. Stengl, and A. Luigart, “On the morphology and the electrochemical formation mechanism of mesoporous silicon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69–70, 11–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(5), 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, and A. Kose, “Mechanical tuning of the optical properties of plastic opal as a photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 7A), L786–L788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. Mazzoleni and L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Vhquez, E. Alvarez, and J. M. Navaza, “Surface Tension of Alcohol + Water from 20 to 50 °C,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 40(3), 611–614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, E.

G. Vhquez, E. Alvarez, and J. M. Navaza, “Surface Tension of Alcohol + Water from 20 to 50 °C,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 40(3), 611–614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Asher, S. A.

X. Xu, G. Friedman, K. D. Humfeld, S. A. Majetich, and S. A. Asher, “Synthesis and utilization of monodisperse superparamagnetic colloidal particles for magnetically controllable photonic crystals,” Chem. Mater. 14(3), 1249–1256 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benecke, W.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Busch, K.

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(5), 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. Y.

Z. H. Yang, C. Y. Chiu, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Investigation and Application of an artificially hybrid-structured surface with ultrahydrophobic and anti-sticking character,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 085022–085033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, C.

Friedman, G.

X. Xu, G. Friedman, K. D. Humfeld, S. A. Majetich, and S. A. Asher, “Synthesis and utilization of monodisperse superparamagnetic colloidal particles for magnetically controllable photonic crystals,” Chem. Mater. 14(3), 1249–1256 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fudouzi, H.

H. Fudouzi and Y. Xia, “Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers,” Langmuir 19(23), 9653–9660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

J. Li, W. Huang, and Y. Han, “Tunable photonic crystals by mixed liquids,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 279(1-3), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Huang, W.

J. Li, W. Huang, and Y. Han, “Tunable photonic crystals by mixed liquids,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 279(1-3), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Humfeld, K. D.

X. Xu, G. Friedman, K. D. Humfeld, S. A. Majetich, and S. A. Asher, “Synthesis and utilization of monodisperse superparamagnetic colloidal particles for magnetically controllable photonic crystals,” Chem. Mater. 14(3), 1249–1256 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishino, C.

C. Ishino, K. Okumura, and D. Quéré, “Wetting transitions on rough surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 68(3), 419–425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(5), 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawagishi, Y.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, and A. Kose, “Mechanical tuning of the optical properties of plastic opal as a photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 7A), L786–L788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kehlenbeck, M.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Knieling, T.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Koblitz, J.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Kose, A.

K. Yoshino, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, and A. Kose, “Mechanical tuning of the optical properties of plastic opal as a photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 7A), L786–L788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lang, W.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Lehmann, V.

V. Lehmann, R. Stengl, and A. Luigart, “On the morphology and the electrochemical formation mechanism of mesoporous silicon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69–70, 11–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, W. Huang, and Y. Han, “Tunable photonic crystals by mixed liquids,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 279(1-3), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. H.

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luigart, A.

V. Lehmann, R. Stengl, and A. Luigart, “On the morphology and the electrochemical formation mechanism of mesoporous silicon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69–70, 11–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Majetich, S. A.

X. Xu, G. Friedman, K. D. Humfeld, S. A. Majetich, and S. A. Asher, “Synthesis and utilization of monodisperse superparamagnetic colloidal particles for magnetically controllable photonic crystals,” Chem. Mater. 14(3), 1249–1256 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

C. Mazzoleni and L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Navaza, J. M.

G. Vhquez, E. Alvarez, and J. M. Navaza, “Surface Tension of Alcohol + Water from 20 to 50 °C,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 40(3), 611–614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, K.

C. Ishino, K. Okumura, and D. Quéré, “Wetting transitions on rough surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 68(3), 419–425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627–3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, and A. Kose, “Mechanical tuning of the optical properties of plastic opal as a photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 7A), L786–L788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

C. Mazzoleni and L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quéré, D.

C. Ishino, K. Okumura, and D. Quéré, “Wetting transitions on rough surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 68(3), 419–425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rombach, P.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Shimoda, Y.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627–3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stengl, R.

V. Lehmann, R. Stengl, and A. Luigart, “On the morphology and the electrochemical formation mechanism of mesoporous silicon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69–70, 11–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vhquez, G.

G. Vhquez, E. Alvarez, and J. M. Navaza, “Surface Tension of Alcohol + Water from 20 to 50 °C,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 40(3), 611–614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Wang, X. J.

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Xia, Y.

H. Fudouzi and Y. Xia, “Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers,” Langmuir 19(23), 9653–9660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, G. Friedman, K. D. Humfeld, S. A. Majetich, and S. A. Asher, “Synthesis and utilization of monodisperse superparamagnetic colloidal particles for magnetically controllable photonic crystals,” Chem. Mater. 14(3), 1249–1256 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. T.

Z. H. Yang, C. Y. Chiu, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Investigation and Application of an artificially hybrid-structured surface with ultrahydrophobic and anti-sticking character,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 085022–085033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. H.

Z. H. Yang, C. Y. Chiu, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Investigation and Application of an artificially hybrid-structured surface with ultrahydrophobic and anti-sticking character,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 085022–085033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. A.

Z. H. Yang, C. Y. Chiu, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Investigation and Application of an artificially hybrid-structured surface with ultrahydrophobic and anti-sticking character,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 085022–085033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627–3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, and A. Kose, “Mechanical tuning of the optical properties of plastic opal as a photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 7A), L786–L788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Zhuang, Y. X.

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

Zi, J.

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627–3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Mazzoleni and L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, and J. Zi, “Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4704–4706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X. Xu, G. Friedman, K. D. Humfeld, S. A. Majetich, and S. A. Asher, “Synthesis and utilization of monodisperse superparamagnetic colloidal particles for magnetically controllable photonic crystals,” Chem. Mater. 14(3), 1249–1256 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. (1)

J. Li, W. Huang, and Y. Han, “Tunable photonic crystals by mixed liquids,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 279(1-3), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

C. Ishino, K. Okumura, and D. Quéré, “Wetting transitions on rough surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 68(3), 419–425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Eng. Data (1)

G. Vhquez, E. Alvarez, and J. M. Navaza, “Surface Tension of Alcohol + Water from 20 to 50 °C,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 40(3), 611–614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. MEMS (1)

Y. X. Zhuang, O. Hansen, T. Knieling, C. Wang, P. Rombach, W. Lang, W. Benecke, M. Kehlenbeck, and J. Koblitz, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayers for anti-stiction applications in MEMS,” J. MEMS 16, 1451–1460 (2007).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Z. H. Yang, C. Y. Chiu, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Investigation and Application of an artificially hybrid-structured surface with ultrahydrophobic and anti-sticking character,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 085022–085033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Yoshino, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, and A. Kose, “Mechanical tuning of the optical properties of plastic opal as a photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 7A), L786–L788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

H. Fudouzi and Y. Xia, “Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers,” Langmuir 19(23), 9653–9660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

V. Lehmann, R. Stengl, and A. Luigart, “On the morphology and the electrochemical formation mechanism of mesoporous silicon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69–70, 11–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(5), 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of PhC with hydrophobic voids immersed in binary mixture; the capillary action is achieved by varying the mixture ratio of liquids with high and low surface tension.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The periodic structure of the PSiPhC revealed by an SEM cross-section image

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivity spectra of the PSiPhC at normal incidence 0° and at an incident angle of 45°

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contact angles of ethanol-water mixtures on top of the PSiPhC

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Colorless droplets of 0%, 50% and 99.5% ethanol mixtures on top of the PSiPhC

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectivity spectra of the PSiPhC under ethanol-water mixtures

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Color evolution of the PSiPhC immersed in the ethanol-water mixture; the cyan-blue color of the PSiPhC turned to green with the increase of the ethanol concentration from 0% to 90% and returned to cyan blue with the decrease of the ethanol concentration from 90% to 2.5%.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hysteresis of the capillary-driven tuning process for the tunable PSiPhC.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Methods for Tunable PhCs at Visible Range (An asterisk * denotes the active media in PhC.)

Metrics