Abstract

The lidar equation for ocean at optical wavelengths including subsurface signals is revisited using the recent work of the radiative transfer and ocean color community for passive measurements. The previous form of the specular and subsurface echo term are corrected from their heritage, which originated from passive remote sensing of whitecaps, and is improved for more accurate use in future lidar research. A corrected expression for specular and subsurface lidar return is presented. The previous formalism does not correctly address angular dependency of specular lidar return and overestimates the subsurface term by a factor ranging from 89% to 194% for a nadir pointing lidar. Suggestions for future improvements to the lidar equation are also presented.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-Instrument Calibration Method Based on a Multiwavelength Ocean Surface Model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Z. Li, “C. Lemmerz, U. Paffrath, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, “Airborne Doppler lidar investigation of the sea surface reflectance at the ultraviolet wavelength of 355 nm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2009), doi:.

2008 (2)

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, K. Powell, and S. Rodier, “Retrieving optical depth and lidar ratios for transparent layers above opaque water clouds from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” IEEE Geophys. And Rem. Sens. Lett. 4(4), 523–526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanre, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and P. H. Flamant, “`Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Dense Stratocumulus Clouds during Mission 206 of EUCREX'94 as Retrieved from measurements made with the airborne lidar LEANDRE 1,” Atmos. Res. 55(1), 47–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3NO. C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, E. G. Yanovitskij, and N. T. Zakharova, “Bidirectional reflectance of flat, optically thick particulate layers: An efficient radiative transfer solution and applications to snow and soil surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 63(2-6), 409–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

Y. Liu, X. H. Yan, W. T. Liu, and P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of ocean surface slopes and its effect on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22(5), 1033–1045 (1997).

J. P. Veefkind and G. de Leeuw, “A new aerosol retrieval algorithm applied to ATSR-2 data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28(Suppl. l), 693–694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,143–13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (2)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18(2), 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 16(4), 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Baker, K.

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barrick, D. E.

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 16(4), 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O.

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

Chapron, B.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cisewski, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

de Leeuw, G.

J. P. Veefkind and G. de Leeuw, “A new aerosol retrieval algorithm applied to ATSR-2 data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28(Suppl. l), 693–694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deuze, J. L.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanre, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dlugach, J. M.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, E. G. Yanovitskij, and N. T. Zakharova, “Bidirectional reflectance of flat, optically thick particulate layers: An efficient radiative transfer solution and applications to snow and soil surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 63(2-6), 409–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drennan, W. M.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Durden, S. L.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and P. H. Flamant, “`Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Dense Stratocumulus Clouds during Mission 206 of EUCREX'94 as Retrieved from measurements made with the airborne lidar LEANDRE 1,” Atmos. Res. 55(1), 47–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and P. H. Flamant, “`Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Dense Stratocumulus Clouds during Mission 206 of EUCREX'94 as Retrieved from measurements made with the airborne lidar LEANDRE 1,” Atmos. Res. 55(1), 47–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Haner, U. P. Oppenheim, and P. H. Flamant, “Target reflectance measurements for calibration of lidar atmospheric backscatter data,” Appl. Opt. 22(17), 2619–2628 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flittner, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35(24), 4850 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,143–13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gohin, F.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H.

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3NO. C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gourrion, J.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haner, D. A.

Hauser, D.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, J. M.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henriot, N.

F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanre, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

Hostetler, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-Instrument Calibration Method Based on a Multiwavelength Ocean Surface Model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, K. Powell, and S. Rodier, “Retrieving optical depth and lidar ratios for transparent layers above opaque water clouds from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” IEEE Geophys. And Rem. Sens. Lett. 4(4), 523–526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, W. H.

Hwang, P. A.

Y. Liu, X. H. Yan, W. T. Liu, and P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of ocean surface slopes and its effect on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22(5), 1033–1045 (1997).

Im, E.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Josset, D.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-Instrument Calibration Method Based on a Multiwavelength Ocean Surface Model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Klett, J. D.

Koepke, P.

Lafrance, B.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanre, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanre, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, “C. Lemmerz, U. Paffrath, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, “Airborne Doppler lidar investigation of the sea surface reflectance at the ultraviolet wavelength of 355 nm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2009), doi:.

Lin, B.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. T.

Y. Liu, X. H. Yan, W. T. Liu, and P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of ocean surface slopes and its effect on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22(5), 1033–1045 (1997).

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, X. H. Yan, W. T. Liu, and P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of ocean surface slopes and its effect on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22(5), 1033–1045 (1997).

Liu, Z.

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, K. Powell, and S. Rodier, “Retrieving optical depth and lidar ratios for transparent layers above opaque water clouds from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” IEEE Geophys. And Rem. Sens. Lett. 4(4), 523–526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, R. T.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, E. G. Yanovitskij, and N. T. Zakharova, “Bidirectional reflectance of flat, optically thick particulate layers: An efficient radiative transfer solution and applications to snow and soil surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 63(2-6), 409–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3NO. C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35(24), 4850 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,143–13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18(2), 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

Omar, A.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheim, U. P.

Pak, K. S.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Partain, P.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-Instrument Calibration Method Based on a Multiwavelength Ocean Surface Model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and P. H. Flamant, “`Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Dense Stratocumulus Clouds during Mission 206 of EUCREX'94 as Retrieved from measurements made with the airborne lidar LEANDRE 1,” Atmos. Res. 55(1), 47–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Powell, K.

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, K. Powell, and S. Rodier, “Retrieving optical depth and lidar ratios for transparent layers above opaque water clouds from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” IEEE Geophys. And Rem. Sens. Lett. 4(4), 523–526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quentin, C.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinke, D. G.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodier, S.

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, K. Powell, and S. Rodier, “Retrieving optical depth and lidar ratios for transparent layers above opaque water clouds from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” IEEE Geophys. And Rem. Sens. Lett. 4(4), 523–526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Santa-Maria, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanre, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

Tanelli, S.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanre, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tratt, D. M.

Trepte, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trouillet, V.

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and P. H. Flamant, “`Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Dense Stratocumulus Clouds during Mission 206 of EUCREX'94 as Retrieved from measurements made with the airborne lidar LEANDRE 1,” Atmos. Res. 55(1), 47–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, K. Powell, and S. Rodier, “Retrieving optical depth and lidar ratios for transparent layers above opaque water clouds from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” IEEE Geophys. And Rem. Sens. Lett. 4(4), 523–526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Veefkind, J. P.

J. P. Veefkind and G. de Leeuw, “A new aerosol retrieval algorithm applied to ATSR-2 data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28(Suppl. l), 693–694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3NO. C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,143–13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weimer, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X. H.

Y. Liu, X. H. Yan, W. T. Liu, and P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of ocean surface slopes and its effect on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22(5), 1033–1045 (1997).

Yang, P.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yanovitskij, E. G.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, E. G. Yanovitskij, and N. T. Zakharova, “Bidirectional reflectance of flat, optically thick particulate layers: An efficient radiative transfer solution and applications to snow and soil surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 63(2-6), 409–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakharova, N. T.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, E. G. Yanovitskij, and N. T. Zakharova, “Bidirectional reflectance of flat, optically thick particulate layers: An efficient radiative transfer solution and applications to snow and soil surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 63(2-6), 409–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8(1), 2771–2793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and P. H. Flamant, “`Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Dense Stratocumulus Clouds during Mission 206 of EUCREX'94 as Retrieved from measurements made with the airborne lidar LEANDRE 1,” Atmos. Res. 55(1), 47–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18(2), 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Geophys. And Rem. Sens. Lett. (1)

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, K. Powell, and S. Rodier, “Retrieving optical depth and lidar ratios for transparent layers above opaque water clouds from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” IEEE Geophys. And Rem. Sens. Lett. 4(4), 523–526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. (1)

D. Josset, J. Pelon, and Y. Hu, “Multi-Instrument Calibration Method Based on a Multiwavelength Ocean Surface Model,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 195–199 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 16(4), 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “Cloudsat’s Cloud Profiling Radar after two years in Orbit: Performance, Calibration and Processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

J. P. Veefkind and G. de Leeuw, “A new aerosol retrieval algorithm applied to ATSR-2 data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28(Suppl. l), 693–694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

Z. Li, “C. Lemmerz, U. Paffrath, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, “Airborne Doppler lidar investigation of the sea surface reflectance at the ultraviolet wavelength of 355 nm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2009), doi:.

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,143–13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, D. Hauser, C. Quentin, W. M. Drennan, F. Gohin, B. Chapron, and J. Gourrion, “Analysis of surface wind speed and roughness length evolution with fetch using a combination of airborne lidar and radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), 8058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3NO. C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Gordon, O. Brown, R. Evans, J. Brown, R. Smith, K. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “D. Clark A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

Y. Liu, X. H. Yan, W. T. Liu, and P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of ocean surface slopes and its effect on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22(5), 1033–1045 (1997).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanre, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, E. G. Yanovitskij, and N. T. Zakharova, “Bidirectional reflectance of flat, optically thick particulate layers: An efficient radiative transfer solution and applications to snow and soil surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 63(2-6), 409–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to atmospheric radiation. Academic Press, 2002.

E. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, and S. Y. Kotchenova, “Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum - Vector (6SV)”, 6S User Guide Version 3, November2006.

P. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. Trepte, P. Lucker, and D. Josset, A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, In Press, Uncorrected Proof, ISSN 0022–4073, DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.12.005, Available online 21 December 2009.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters, San Diego, Academic, (1994).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984)

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Specular reflectance as a function of incident angle for three wind speeds, 3, 7, and 11 m/s.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table B.1 Index of different terms used in this manuscript

Tables Icon

Table B.2 Index of different terms used in this manuscript (continued)

Tables Icon

Table B.3 Index of different terms used in this manuscript (continued)

Tables Icon

Table B.4 Index of different terms used in this manuscript (continued)

Equations (32)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R o c e a n = F r μ F 0 .
R o c e a n = W R f , e f f + ( 1 W ) R S + ( 1 W R f , e f f ) R u ,
R o c e a n = W F f , e f f μ F 0 + ( 1 W ) F S μ F 0 + T f o a m F u μ F 0 .
γ = R min R max P r R 2 C L d R = E r E 0 Ω t .
ρ B R D F = π L r μ F 0 ,
γ = ρ B R D F π μ T A T M 2 = L r μ F 0 μ T A T M 2 .
γ = γ S + γ f + γ u .
γ = ( W L f , e f f μ F 0 + ( 1 W ) L S μ F 0 + T o c e a n t o c e a n L u μ F 0 ) μ T A T M 2 .
γ = T A T M 2 ( ρ 4 π < S 2 > cos 4 ( θ ) exp ( tan 2 ( θ ) < S 2 > ) + R u π cos ( θ ) ) ,
S 2 = 0.003 + 0.005 v .
γ = T A T M 2 ( ( 1 W ) ρ 2 π < S 2 > cos 4 ( θ ) exp ( tan 2 ( θ ) < S 2 > ) + W . R f , e f f π cos ( θ ) + ( 1 W R f , e f f ) R u π cos ( θ ) ) .
γ S = ( 1 W ) ρ 4 cos 5 ( θ ) p ( ς x , ς y ) T A T M 2 ( 1 W ) ρ 4 π < S 2 > cos 5 ( θ ) exp ( tan 2 ( θ ) < S 2 > ) T A T M 2 .
γ f = W . R f , e f f π cos ( θ ) T A T M 2 .
T o c e a n = 1 W R f , e f f ( 1 W ) R s ( θ ) .
R s 0.0209 ( 1 ± 0.05 ) .
t o c e a n = ( 1 W ) t s + W . t f o a m .
t s = T s ( θ ' ) m 2 .
t f o a m = 1 R f , e f f π .
γ u = T o c e a n t o c e a n T A T M 2 S min S max β u exp ( 2 s min s max η u α u d s ) d S .
S min S max β u exp ( 2 s min s max η u α u d s ) d S = β u 2 η u α u .
γ = T A T M 2 ( ( 1 W ) ρ 4 π < S 2 > cos 5 ( θ ) exp ( tan 2 ( θ ) < S 2 > ) + W . R f , e f f π cos ( θ ) + ( 1 W R f , e f f ( 1 W ) R s ( θ ) ) [ ( 1 W ) ] ( 1 r ¯ R u ) cos ( θ ) T s ( θ ' ) m 2 R u Q ( θ ' ) + ( 1 W R f , e f f ( 1 W ) R s ( θ ) ) ( 1 R f , e f f R u ) W ( 1 R f , e f f π ) cos ( θ ) R u ) .
P r ( R ) = C L R 2 β ( R ) T A T M 2 ( R ) .
C L = c 2 E 0 A t .
P r = L r A t Ω G exp ( τ A T M μ ) .
Ω G = A G μ R 2 .
ρ B R D F = π L r μ F 0 .
P r = μ F 0 ρ B R D F π A t A G μ R 2 exp ( τ A T M μ ) .
F 0 = P 0 μ A G exp ( τ A T M μ ) .
P r = μ ρ B R D F π P 0 μ A G exp ( τ A T M μ ) A t A G μ R 2 exp ( τ A T M μ ) .
P r d t = ρ B R D F π 1 A G A G μ R 2 exp ( 2 τ A T M μ ) C L 2 c .
P r R 2 C L c 2 d t = γ = ρ B R D F π μ exp ( 2 τ A T M μ ) .
γ = E r E 0 Ω t .

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