Abstract

We demonstrate imaging through a turbid layer by using digital phase conjugation of the second harmonic field radiated from a beacon nanoparticle. We show that the phase-conjugated focus can be displaced from its initial position by illuminating the same region of the turbid layer with an angular offset. An image is obtained by scanning the phase-conjugated focus through the turbid layer in a region around the nanoparticle. We obtain a clear image of the target by measuring the light transmitted through it when scanning the focused beam.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, and M. Lehmann, “Wavefront-reconstruction imaging through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 311–313 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. N. Leith and J. Upatniek, “Holographic imagery through diffusing media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56(4), 523 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kogelnik and K. S. Pennington, “Holographic imaging through a random medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58(2), 273–274 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. H. Yang, “An in vivo study of turbidity suppression by optical phase conjugation (TSOPC) on rabbit ear,” Opt. Express 18(1), 25–30 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Cui and C. H. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Mok, J. Diep, H. K. Liu, and D. Psaltis, “Real-time computer-generated hologram by means of liquid-crystal television spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 11(11), 748–750 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuña, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15342–15349 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, “Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), A103–A110 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kühn, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holographic microscopy investigation of second harmonic generated at a glass/air interface,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2450–2452 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. E. Shaffer, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Real time, nanometric 3D-tracking of nanoparticles made possible by second harmonic generation digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17392–17403 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. L. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207402 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  26. S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. L. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. H. Yang, “An in vivo study of turbidity suppression by optical phase conjugation (TSOPC) on rabbit ear,” Opt. Express 18(1), 25–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui and C. H. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Masihzadeh, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, “Label-free second harmonic generation holographic microscopy of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9840–9851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shaffer, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Real time, nanometric 3D-tracking of nanoparticles made possible by second harmonic generation digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17392–17403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, “Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), A103–A110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

1988

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1968

1967

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, and M. Lehmann, “Wavefront-reconstruction imaging through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Leith and J. Upatniek, “Holographic imagery through diffusing media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56(4), 523 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, C. M.

Bartels, R. A.

Bonacina, L.

Buchanan, J. D. R.

Centurion, M.

Chauvat, D.

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cižmár, T.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cowburn, R. P.

Cui, M.

Cuña, E.

Depeursinge, C.

Dholakia, K.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diep, J.

Extermann, J.

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feurer, T.

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, and M. Lehmann, “Wavefront-reconstruction imaging through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. L. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, C. L.

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. L. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huntley, W. H.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, and M. Lehmann, “Wavefront-reconstruction imaging through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. W.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, and M. Lehmann, “Wavefront-reconstruction imaging through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kane, C.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, C.

Kogelnik, H.

Kühn, J.

Lagendijk, A.

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. A.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmann, M.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, and M. Lehmann, “Wavefront-reconstruction imaging through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Liu, H. K.

Marquet, P.

Masihzadeh, O.

Mazilu, M.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McDowell, E. J.

Mok, F.

Mosk, A. P.

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mugnier, Y.

Oron, D.

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavillon, N.

Pennington, K. S.

Psaltis, D.

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. L. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, “Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), A103–A110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Mok, J. Diep, H. K. Liu, and D. Psaltis, “Real-time computer-generated hologram by means of liquid-crystal television spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 11(11), 748–750 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pu, Y.

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. L. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, “Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), A103–A110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbluh, M.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlup, P.

Seem, P. R.

Shaffer, E.

Stone, A. D.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Upatniek, J.

Vellekoop, I. M.

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

Yang, C.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zielinski, M.

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zyss, J.

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, and M. Lehmann, “Wavefront-reconstruction imaging through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(12), 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nat Photonics

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuña, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15342–15349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. H. Yang, “An in vivo study of turbidity suppression by optical phase conjugation (TSOPC) on rabbit ear,” Opt. Express 18(1), 25–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui and C. H. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Masihzadeh, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, “Label-free second harmonic generation holographic microscopy of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9840–9851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shaffer, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Real time, nanometric 3D-tracking of nanoparticles made possible by second harmonic generation digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17392–17403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. L. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two steps of imaging through turbid media in a phase-conjugate scanning microscopy. (a) Recording the scattered SHG field radiated from a SHRIMP by digital holography. (b) Scanning the phase-conjugated focus on the imaging plane by illuminating the same region of the turbid medium (shown as the red circular region) with the phase-conjugated beam at different angles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The experimental setup of the harmonic holographic microscopy for recording the complex scattered SHG field. Inset: The illustrative diagram of the sample structure. (b) The experimental setup of the phase-conjugate scanning microscope. Note that (a) and (b) show the same setup with different light illuminations for different steps of the experiment. The light not in use is blocked in the experiment and is not shown in the figures. DI, dichroic mirror; L1 – L4, lens; OBJ1 and OBJ2, microscope objectives; S, sample; BS1 – BS3, non-polarizing beam splitters; BF, band-pass filter centered at 400 nm; M, mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the tilt of the phase-conjugated beam as the SLM tilts. (a) The optical diagram of the SLM projection through the 4F imaging system consisting of L2 and OBJ2. Note that the SLM is not placed at the imaging plane of the 4F system, and therefore the SLM image is between the focal plane and OBJ2. Here f 1 and f 2 are the focal length of the OBJ2 and L2; d is the distance between the focal plane and the SLM image plane. (b) The illustrative diagram showing how the phase-conjugated beam tilts while the SLM tilts. Details of the coordination between the tilt and the shift of the SLM for the scanning are in the main text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focusing through the turbid medium without and with phase conjugation. (a) The speckle pattern on the image plane when focusing directly through the turbid medium by the objective without phase conjugation. (b) The conjugated phase pattern projected on the SLM for phase conjugation. The grayscale from black to white represents the phase modulation from 0 to 2π. (c) The phase-conjugated focus on the image plane. The inset shows the magnified image of the focus. The scale bar in the inset is 5 μm. The size of the images in (a) and (c) is 195 ´195 μm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular response of the tilted phase-conjugated focus. Note that the tilt angle in this figure is the tilt angle at the sample position. The experimental data is shown as black dots and the theoretical fitting is shown as the red line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase-conjugate scanning images. (a) The wide-field transmission image of the target. The target is a 130-nm thick gold pattern on a glass substrate prepared by photolithography. The bright region in this figure indicates the transparent area while the dark region indicates the gold film. (b) The corresponding phase-conjugate scanning image of the target. The target is clearly resolved. The intensity profile along the dashed line is plotted in Fig. 7. (c) The scanning image of the same target without phase conjugation. Since the focus is severely distorted by the turbid medium, the image is completely blurry. The size of the images are 115 ´ 115 μm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The normalized intensity profile along the dashed line in the phase-conjugate scanning image shown in Fig. 6 (b). The experimental data points are shown as blue dots.

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