Abstract

Nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers-based electroluminescent devices were prepared on nano-patterned p-Si substrates which were fabricated by nano-sphere lithography technique. The formed nano-patterned substrate contains periodic Si nano-cone arrays with the height of 80~95 nm and the diameter around 220 nm. The turn-on voltage of the luminescent device prepared on nano-patterned substrate is 3 V while the electroluminescence intensity is increased by over one order of magnitude compared to that of device prepared on flat substrate. The enhancement of the light emission can be attributed to the improved extraction efficiency of emission light as well as the high carrier-injection efficiency.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. L. Pavesi, “Silicon-based light sources for Silicon integrated circuits,” Advances in Optical Technologies 2008, 1–13 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of Silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Daldosso and L. Pavesi, “Nanosilicon photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3(6), 508–534 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Heitmann, F. Muller, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, “Silicon Nanocrystals: Size Matters,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 795–803 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Zhou, G. R. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Xu, T. Wang, N. Wan, Z. Y. Ma, W. Li, C. Song, and K. J. Chen, “Electroluminescent devices based on amorphous SiN/Si quantum dots/amorphous SiN sandwiched structures,” Opt. Express 17(1), 156–162 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and J.-G. Lee, “Improved output coupling efficiency of a ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent device with addition of a two-dimensional SiO2 corrugated substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. T. Kang, B. K. Wagner, J. Parrish, D. Schiff, and C. J. Summers, “Enhancement of white luminescence from SiNx films by surface roughening,” Nanotechnology 18(41), 415709 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “(Si/SiO2)n multilayers and microcavities for LED applications,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 27–30 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and C. K. Lin, “Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2555–2563 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

N. Daldosso and L. Pavesi, “Nanosilicon photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3(6), 508–534 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, G. R. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Xu, T. Wang, N. Wan, Z. Y. Ma, W. Li, C. Song, and K. J. Chen, “Electroluminescent devices based on amorphous SiN/Si quantum dots/amorphous SiN sandwiched structures,” Opt. Express 17(1), 156–162 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, “Silicon-based light sources for Silicon integrated circuits,” Advances in Optical Technologies 2008, 1–13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Z. T. Kang, B. K. Wagner, J. Parrish, D. Schiff, and C. J. Summers, “Enhancement of white luminescence from SiNx films by surface roughening,” Nanotechnology 18(41), 415709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and C. K. Lin, “Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2555–2563 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of Silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Heitmann, F. Muller, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, “Silicon Nanocrystals: Size Matters,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 795–803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and J.-G. Lee, “Improved output coupling efficiency of a ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent device with addition of a two-dimensional SiO2 corrugated substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “(Si/SiO2)n multilayers and microcavities for LED applications,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 27–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and J.-G. Lee, “Improved output coupling efficiency of a ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent device with addition of a two-dimensional SiO2 corrugated substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anopchenko, A.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bellutti, P.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “(Si/SiO2)n multilayers and microcavities for LED applications,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 27–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cazzanelli, M.

G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “(Si/SiO2)n multilayers and microcavities for LED applications,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 27–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Y.

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. R.

Chen, K.

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. J.

J. Zhou, G. R. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Xu, T. Wang, N. Wan, Z. Y. Ma, W. Li, C. Song, and K. J. Chen, “Electroluminescent devices based on amorphous SiN/Si quantum dots/amorphous SiN sandwiched structures,” Opt. Express 17(1), 156–162 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. H.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and J.-G. Lee, “Improved output coupling efficiency of a ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent device with addition of a two-dimensional SiO2 corrugated substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chou, L.-J.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chueh, Y.-L.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

N. Daldosso and L. Pavesi, “Nanosilicon photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3(6), 508–534 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and J.-G. Lee, “Improved output coupling efficiency of a ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent device with addition of a two-dimensional SiO2 corrugated substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erchak, A. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaburro, Z.

G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “(Si/SiO2)n multilayers and microcavities for LED applications,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 27–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

J. Heitmann, F. Muller, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, “Silicon Nanocrystals: Size Matters,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 795–803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. G.

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, J.

J. Heitmann, F. Muller, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, “Silicon Nanocrystals: Size Matters,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 795–803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. E.

F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. F.

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Z. T.

Z. T. Kang, B. K. Wagner, J. Parrish, D. Schiff, and C. J. Summers, “Enhancement of white luminescence from SiNx films by surface roughening,” Nanotechnology 18(41), 415709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and J.-G. Lee, “Improved output coupling efficiency of a ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent device with addition of a two-dimensional SiO2 corrugated substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, F.

F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-G.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and J.-G. Lee, “Improved output coupling efficiency of a ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent device with addition of a two-dimensional SiO2 corrugated substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

J. Zhou, G. R. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Xu, T. Wang, N. Wan, Z. Y. Ma, W. Li, C. Song, and K. J. Chen, “Electroluminescent devices based on amorphous SiN/Si quantum dots/amorphous SiN sandwiched structures,” Opt. Express 17(1), 156–162 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. J.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and C. K. Lin, “Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2555–2563 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. K.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and C. K. Lin, “Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2555–2563 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and C. K. Lin, “Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2555–2563 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ling, S. C.

F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lu, T. C.

F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z. Y.

J. Zhou, G. R. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Xu, T. Wang, N. Wan, Z. Y. Ma, W. Li, C. Song, and K. J. Chen, “Electroluminescent devices based on amorphous SiN/Si quantum dots/amorphous SiN sandwiched structures,” Opt. Express 17(1), 156–162 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, A.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mei, J.

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muller, F.

J. Heitmann, F. Muller, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, “Silicon Nanocrystals: Size Matters,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 795–803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mun, J. S.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, T.-Y.

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parrish, J.

Z. T. Kang, B. K. Wagner, J. Parrish, D. Schiff, and C. J. Summers, “Enhancement of white luminescence from SiNx films by surface roughening,” Nanotechnology 18(41), 415709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso and L. Pavesi, “Nanosilicon photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3(6), 508–534 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, “Silicon-based light sources for Silicon integrated circuits,” Advances in Optical Technologies 2008, 1–13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “(Si/SiO2)n multilayers and microcavities for LED applications,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 27–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pucker, G.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “(Si/SiO2)n multilayers and microcavities for LED applications,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 27–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rui, Y.

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, D.

Z. T. Kang, B. K. Wagner, J. Parrish, D. Schiff, and C. J. Summers, “Enhancement of white luminescence from SiNx films by surface roughening,” Nanotechnology 18(41), 415709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W. H.

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, C.

Song, F.

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of Silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C. J.

Z. T. Kang, B. K. Wagner, J. Parrish, D. Schiff, and C. J. Summers, “Enhancement of white luminescence from SiNx films by surface roughening,” Nanotechnology 18(41), 415709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, B. K.

Z. T. Kang, B. K. Wagner, J. Parrish, D. Schiff, and C. J. Summers, “Enhancement of white luminescence from SiNx films by surface roughening,” Nanotechnology 18(41), 415709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wan, J.

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, N.

Wang, M.

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. M.

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, D. Y.

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Zhou, G. R. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Xu, T. Wang, N. Wan, Z. Y. Ma, W. Li, C. Song, and K. J. Chen, “Electroluminescent devices based on amorphous SiN/Si quantum dots/amorphous SiN sandwiched structures,” Opt. Express 17(1), 156–162 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

J. Heitmann, F. Muller, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, “Silicon Nanocrystals: Size Matters,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 795–803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. G.

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, G. R. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Xu, T. Wang, N. Wan, Z. Y. Ma, W. Li, C. Song, and K. J. Chen, “Electroluminescent devices based on amorphous SiN/Si quantum dots/amorphous SiN sandwiched structures,” Opt. Express 17(1), 156–162 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, D.

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. Heitmann, F. Muller, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, “Silicon Nanocrystals: Size Matters,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 795–803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kim, C. H. Cho, J. S. Mun, M. K. Kwon, T.-Y. Park, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, J. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the External Quantum Efficiency of a Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode by Localized Surface Plasmons,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3100–3104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Advances in Optical Technologies (1)

L. Pavesi, “Silicon-based light sources for Silicon integrated circuits,” Advances in Optical Technologies 2008, 1–13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and J.-G. Lee, “Improved output coupling efficiency of a ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent device with addition of a two-dimensional SiO2 corrugated substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

F. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Microhole Array and Roughened Surface Oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of Silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

N. Daldosso and L. Pavesi, “Nanosilicon photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3(6), 508–534 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

Z. T. Kang, B. K. Wagner, J. Parrish, D. Schiff, and C. J. Summers, “Enhancement of white luminescence from SiNx films by surface roughening,” Nanotechnology 18(41), 415709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, J. Zhou, X. G. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Xu, W. Zhao, P. Sun, F. Song, J. Wan, and K. Chen, “Field emission from a periodic amorphous silicon pillar array fabricated by modified nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(13), 135308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “(Si/SiO2)n multilayers and microcavities for LED applications,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 27–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Y. Chen, D. Y. Wei, J. Xu, P. G. Han, X. Wang, Z. Y. Ma, K. J. Chen, W. H. Shi, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in p–i–n structures with nano-crystalline Si/SiO2 multilayers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 015013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. Mei, Y. Rui, Z. Ma, J. Xu, D. Zhu, L. Yang, X. Li, W. Li, X. F. Huang, and K. J. Chen, “Contribution of multiple emitting centers to luminescence from Si/SiO2 multilayers with step by step thermal annealing,” Solid State Commun. 131(11), 701–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM images of nano-patterned p-Si substrate without (a) and with (b) nc-Si/SiO2 multilayers and (c) the schematic diagram of electroluminescent device structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EL spectra of nc-Si/SiO2 deposited on (a) flat and (b) nano-patterned substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated EL intensity versus the applied voltage for the flat and nano-patterned devices (a) and efficiency curves as a function of applied voltage for both the flat and nano-patterned devices (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FN plots for devices on flat (a) and nano-patterned (b) substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflection spectra for samples on the flat and nano-patterned substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EL enhancement factor as a function of wavelength.

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