Abstract

The temperature dependence of the resonant wavelength of vertically coupled microring resonator can be controlled via internal stress caused by the thermo-optic and photo-elastic effects. In the case of strong internal stress, a polarization-independent microring resonator can be realized by controlling the device surface temperature using a heater module; the temperature dependence of TE and TM polarizations are different due to the internal stress and thus manipulating temperatures, the resonant wavelengths for TE and TM can be equalized at a specific temperature. In this study, the UV trimming of polarization-independent wavelength was demonstrated using UV-sensitive SiON as a core material. The temperature dependence of TE polarization was almost athermalized and that of TM was made negative by controlling internal stress. As a result, the simultaneous realization of the UV trimming and the polarization-independent microring was made possible more easily than before; the UV trimming can be done at room temperature due to the athermalized resonant wavelength for TE polarization.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, and I. Nishi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength multiplexer on silicon," Opt. Lett. 17,499-501 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Kobayashi, N. Zaizen, and Y. Kokubun, "Athermal and polarization independent microring resonator filter by stress control," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46,5465-5469 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Kokubun, H. Haeiwa, and H. Tanaka, "Precise center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to ring core," in proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE/LEOS, Glasgow, U.K., 2002), pp.746-747.
  6. H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N N wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13,447-455 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, "Athermal waveguides for temperature independent lightwave devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  5,1297-1300 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Namihira, M. Kudo, and Y. Mushiake, "Effect of Mechanical Stress on the Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron.  J60-C, 391-398 (1977) [in Japanese].
  9. A. J. Moses, Handbook of Electrical Materials, Vol.1, (New York, IFI/Prenum, 1971), p.68.
  10. O. Madelung, ed., Semiconductors - Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds (Springer-Verlag, Belrin, 1991), p.15.
  11. T. P. Ma, "Stresses in SiO2-ON-Si structures," in Properties of Silicon (INSPEC, London, 1988), p.654.
  12. Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, "Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultra-compact ring radius," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,4-10 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007

N. Kobayashi, N. Zaizen, and Y. Kokubun, "Athermal and polarization independent microring resonator filter by stress control," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46,5465-5469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, "Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultra-compact ring radius," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N N wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13,447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, "Athermal waveguides for temperature independent lightwave devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  5,1297-1300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1977

Y. Namihira, M. Kudo, and Y. Mushiake, "Effect of Mechanical Stress on the Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron.  J60-C, 391-398 (1977) [in Japanese].

Bond, A. E.

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Funato, N.

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, "Athermal waveguides for temperature independent lightwave devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  5,1297-1300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, Y.

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, "Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultra-compact ring radius," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Inoue, Y.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N N wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13,447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

N. Kobayashi, N. Zaizen, and Y. Kokubun, "Athermal and polarization independent microring resonator filter by stress control," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46,5465-5469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

N. Kobayashi, N. Zaizen, and Y. Kokubun, "Athermal and polarization independent microring resonator filter by stress control," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46,5465-5469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, "Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultra-compact ring radius," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, "Athermal waveguides for temperature independent lightwave devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  5,1297-1300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, M.

Y. Namihira, M. Kudo, and Y. Mushiake, "Effect of Mechanical Stress on the Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron.  J60-C, 391-398 (1977) [in Japanese].

Lin, C. K.

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mushiake, Y.

Y. Namihira, M. Kudo, and Y. Mushiake, "Effect of Mechanical Stress on the Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron.  J60-C, 391-398 (1977) [in Japanese].

Namihira, Y.

Y. Namihira, M. Kudo, and Y. Mushiake, "Effect of Mechanical Stress on the Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron.  J60-C, 391-398 (1977) [in Japanese].

Nishi, I.

O’Brien, J.

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N N wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13,447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, M.

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, "Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultra-compact ring radius," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, "Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultra-compact ring radius," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N N wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13,447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, and I. Nishi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength multiplexer on silicon," Opt. Lett. 17,499-501 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takizawa, M.

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, "Athermal waveguides for temperature independent lightwave devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  5,1297-1300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tishinin, D. V.

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N N wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13,447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zaizen, N.

N. Kobayashi, N. Zaizen, and Y. Kokubun, "Athermal and polarization independent microring resonator filter by stress control," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46,5465-5469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, "Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultra-compact ring radius," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, "Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultra-compact ring radius," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel Add/Drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin, and J. O’Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,1003-1005 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, "Athermal waveguides for temperature independent lightwave devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  5,1297-1300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron

Y. Namihira, M. Kudo, and Y. Mushiake, "Effect of Mechanical Stress on the Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron.  J60-C, 391-398 (1977) [in Japanese].

J. Lightwave Technol.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N N wavelength multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13,447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

N. Kobayashi, N. Zaizen, and Y. Kokubun, "Athermal and polarization independent microring resonator filter by stress control," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46,5465-5469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

Y. Kokubun, H. Haeiwa, and H. Tanaka, "Precise center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to ring core," in proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE/LEOS, Glasgow, U.K., 2002), pp.746-747.

A. J. Moses, Handbook of Electrical Materials, Vol.1, (New York, IFI/Prenum, 1971), p.68.

O. Madelung, ed., Semiconductors - Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds (Springer-Verlag, Belrin, 1991), p.15.

T. P. Ma, "Stresses in SiO2-ON-Si structures," in Properties of Silicon (INSPEC, London, 1988), p.654.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Modeling structure of photo-elastic effect.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental relation between initial stress and photo-elastic effect.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature dependences of SiON core microring resonator before and after annealing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fabrication processes of vertically coupled microring resonator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Structure of vertically microring resonator.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Resonant wavelength shift of SiON core microring resonator before and after UV trimming.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Athermal microring resonator for TE mode.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Polarization independent microring resonator by internal stress and temperature control. The temperature was 64 °C.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Structure of double sereised microring resonator.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Coupling efficiency of ridge core.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Resonant wavelength shift of channel core and ridge core microring resonator.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E x = ( 1 + k y σ y ) E
E y = ( 1 + k x σ x ) E
Δ n = C 1 σ / / + C 2 σ
σ = ε E δ T = ( α sub α core ) E δ T
Δ n x = C 1 σ x + C 2 σ y = C 2 ε y ( 1 + k y σ y ) E δ T
Δ n y = C 2 σ x + C 1 σ y = C 1 ε y ( 1 + k y σ y ) E δ T

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