Abstract

A ZnO thin-film that comprised a ZnO monolayer close-packed structure embedded in ZnO sol-gel was fabricated. The structure contained ZnO spheres of various sizes. At normal incidence, the mean optical transmittance of the thin-film was 60% in the visible region when the structure contained spheres with a diameter of 300 nm. An average haze ratio of 80% was obtained from the thin-film when the structure was formed using 500 nm-diameter spheres. The thin-film exhibits broad-band transparency and a high haze ratio. It can be used as a light-trapping structure in an ultrathin solar cell.

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, and L. Kimerling, “Design of Highly Efficient Light-trapping Structure for thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Inns, L. Shi, and A. Aberle, “Silica nanospheres as back surface reflectors for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15, 415–423 (2007).

2006

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Mihi and H. Miguez, “Origin of light-harvesting enhancement in colloidal photonic-crystal based dye-sensitized solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(15), 968–976 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Muller, B. Rech, T. Spinger, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cell,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Zettner, M. Thonissen, T. Hierl, R. Brendel, and M. Schulz, “Novel porous silicon backside light reflector for thin silicon solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 6(6), 423–432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Thorp, P. Campbell, and S. R. Wenham, “Conformal films for light-trapping in thin silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 4(3), 205–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

Y. Ohya, H. Saiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Preparation of transparent, electrically conducting ZnO film from zinc acetate and alkoxid,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(15), 4099–4103 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Light scattering from macroscopic spherical bodies,” Phys. Rev. B 25(2), 689–699 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aberle, A.

D. Inns, L. Shi, and A. Aberle, “Silica nanospheres as back surface reflectors for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15, 415–423 (2007).

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, A.

Bermel, P.

Brendel, R.

J. Zettner, M. Thonissen, T. Hierl, R. Brendel, and M. Schulz, “Novel porous silicon backside light reflector for thin silicon solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 6(6), 423–432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, P.

D. Thorp, P. Campbell, and S. R. Wenham, “Conformal films for light-trapping in thin silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 4(3), 205–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Claus, H.

Creazzo, T.

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.

N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, and L. Kimerling, “Design of Highly Efficient Light-trapping Structure for thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Groenon, R.

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamers, E. A. G.

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hierl, T.

J. Zettner, M. Thonissen, T. Hierl, R. Brendel, and M. Schulz, “Novel porous silicon backside light reflector for thin silicon solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 6(6), 423–432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, and L. Kimerling, “Design of Highly Efficient Light-trapping Structure for thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

Inns, D.

D. Inns, L. Shi, and A. Aberle, “Silica nanospheres as back surface reflectors for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15, 415–423 (2007).

Inoue, M.

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Light scattering from macroscopic spherical bodies,” Phys. Rev. B 25(2), 689–699 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kimerling, L.

N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, and L. Kimerling, “Design of Highly Efficient Light-trapping Structure for thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linden, J. L.

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, and L. Kimerling, “Design of Highly Efficient Light-trapping Structure for thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, J.

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Michel, J.

N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, and L. Kimerling, “Design of Highly Efficient Light-trapping Structure for thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miguez, H.

Mihi and H. Miguez, “Origin of light-harvesting enhancement in colloidal photonic-crystal based dye-sensitized solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(15), 968–976 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mihi,

Mihi and H. Miguez, “Origin of light-harvesting enhancement in colloidal photonic-crystal based dye-sensitized solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(15), 968–976 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.

J. Muller, B. Rech, T. Spinger, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cell,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutitu, J. G.

Ohtaka, K.

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Light scattering from macroscopic spherical bodies,” Phys. Rev. B 25(2), 689–699 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, Y.

Y. Ohya, H. Saiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Preparation of transparent, electrically conducting ZnO film from zinc acetate and alkoxid,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(15), 4099–4103 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Rech, B.

J. Muller, B. Rech, T. Spinger, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cell,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rudolf, H.

Saiki, H.

Y. Ohya, H. Saiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Preparation of transparent, electrically conducting ZnO film from zinc acetate and alkoxid,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(15), 4099–4103 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schorpp, R. E. I.

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, M.

J. Zettner, M. Thonissen, T. Hierl, R. Brendel, and M. Schulz, “Novel porous silicon backside light reflector for thin silicon solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 6(6), 423–432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

D. Inns, L. Shi, and A. Aberle, “Silica nanospheres as back surface reflectors for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15, 415–423 (2007).

Shi, S.

Sommeling, P. M.

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spinger, T.

J. Muller, B. Rech, T. Spinger, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cell,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Ohya, H. Saiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Preparation of transparent, electrically conducting ZnO film from zinc acetate and alkoxid,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(15), 4099–4103 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thonissen, M.

J. Zettner, M. Thonissen, T. Hierl, R. Brendel, and M. Schulz, “Novel porous silicon backside light reflector for thin silicon solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 6(6), 423–432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thorp, D.

D. Thorp, P. Campbell, and S. R. Wenham, “Conformal films for light-trapping in thin silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 4(3), 205–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van de Sanden, M. C. M.

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

J. Muller, B. Rech, T. Spinger, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cell,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wenham, S. R.

D. Thorp, P. Campbell, and S. R. Wenham, “Conformal films for light-trapping in thin silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 4(3), 205–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, S.

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Light scattering from macroscopic spherical bodies,” Phys. Rev. B 25(2), 689–699 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, and L. Kimerling, “Design of Highly Efficient Light-trapping Structure for thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zettner, J.

J. Zettner, M. Thonissen, T. Hierl, R. Brendel, and M. Schulz, “Novel porous silicon backside light reflector for thin silicon solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 6(6), 423–432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111–111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, and L. Kimerling, “Design of Highly Efficient Light-trapping Structure for thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

Y. Ohya, H. Saiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Preparation of transparent, electrically conducting ZnO film from zinc acetate and alkoxid,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(15), 4099–4103 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

Mihi and H. Miguez, “Origin of light-harvesting enhancement in colloidal photonic-crystal based dye-sensitized solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(15), 968–976 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Light scattering from macroscopic spherical bodies,” Phys. Rev. B 25(2), 689–699 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

D. Thorp, P. Campbell, and S. R. Wenham, “Conformal films for light-trapping in thin silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 4(3), 205–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Zettner, M. Thonissen, T. Hierl, R. Brendel, and M. Schulz, “Novel porous silicon backside light reflector for thin silicon solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 6(6), 423–432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Inns, L. Shi, and A. Aberle, “Silica nanospheres as back surface reflectors for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15, 415–423 (2007).

Sol. Energy

J. Muller, B. Rech, T. Spinger, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cell,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

R. Groenon, J. Loffler, P. M. Sommeling, J. L. Linden, E. A. G. Hamers, R. E. I. Schorpp, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Surface textured ZnO films for thin film solar cell application by expanding thermal plasma CVD,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 226–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of fabrication process of proposed ZnO thin-film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of as-synthesized ZnO spheres. (b) HRTEM image of ZnO spheres.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XRD pattern of as-synthesized ZnO spheres.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of as-synthesized ZnO spheres.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM image of monolayer structure (a) unclose-packed pattern (b) close-packed pattern.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic diagram of as-fabricated ZnO thin-film. (b)Photographic image of ZnO thin-film. Sample A is sol-gel thin-film without ZnO spheres. Sample B is proposed ZnO thin-film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmittance spectra of ZnO thin-film with different structure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Haze ratio of ZnO thin-film on B270 with different structure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photographic image of 0.26 μm a-Si deposited on sample A and sample B.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absorption spectra of 0.26 μm a-Si deposited on ZnO thin-film with different structure.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( r ) = ( 1 + 1 k s o l g e l 2 2 ) G ( r , r ) × V ( r ) E ( r ) d r
V ( r ) = ( ω / c ) 2 [ ε s o l g e l ε ( r ) ]
G ( r , r ) = exp ( i k s o l g e l | r r | / 4 π | r r | )
H = T d T t

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