Abstract

We present a systematic study of femtosecond laser microchannel machining in glass using nondiffracting Bessel beams. In particular, our results identify a source and focusing parameter working window where high aspect ratio taper-free microchannels can be reproducibly produced without sample translation. With appropriate source parameters, we machine channels of 2 µm diameter and with aspect ratios up to 40. We propose the filamentation stability of the Bessel beam propagation as the critical factor underlying the controlled and reproducible results that have been obtained.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Craighead, “Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules,” Nature 442(7101), 387–393 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. C. Campbell, M. J. Wilkinson, A. Manz, P. Camilleri, and C. J. Humphreys, “Electrophoretic manipulation of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated capillaries,” Lab Chip 4(3), 225–229 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 65(4-5), 367–373 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Schwarz and J. C. Diels, “UV filaments and their application for laser-induced lightning and high-aspect-ratio hole drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 185–191 (2003).
  9. L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2120–2129 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2120 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  12. S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
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  14. K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1855–1859 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-6-1855 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, “Filamentation in Kerr media from pulsed Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043814 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Z. Song, Z. Zhang, and T. Nakajima, “Transverse-mode dependence of femtosecond filamentation,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12217–12229 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12217 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 311–315 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hwang, K. Hiromatsu, H. Hidai, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-guided glass drilling by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 555–558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8685–8695 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-10-8685 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Song, Z. Zhang, and T. Nakajima, “Transverse-mode dependence of femtosecond filamentation,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12217–12229 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12217 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, M. K. Bhuyan, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “Surface nanoprocessing with nondiffracting femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3163–3165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1517–1522 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-1517 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, “Filamentation in Kerr media from pulsed Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 145–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Craighead, “Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules,” Nature 442(7101), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

L. C. Campbell, M. J. Wilkinson, A. Manz, P. Camilleri, and C. J. Humphreys, “Electrophoretic manipulation of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated capillaries,” Lab Chip 4(3), 225–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2120–2129 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2120 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

J. Amako, D. Sawaki, and E. Fujii, “Microstructuring transparent materials by use of nondiffracting ultrashort pulse beams generated by diffractive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(12), 2562–2568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 311–315 (2003).

J. Schwarz and J. C. Diels, “UV filaments and their application for laser-induced lightning and high-aspect-ratio hole drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 185–191 (2003).

2002 (2)

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 65(4-5), 367–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amako, J.

An, R.

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 65(4-5), 367–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Bellini, N.

Bellouard, Y.

Bhuyan, M. K.

Brandt, N.

Camilleri, P.

L. C. Campbell, M. J. Wilkinson, A. Manz, P. Camilleri, and C. J. Humphreys, “Electrophoretic manipulation of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated capillaries,” Lab Chip 4(3), 225–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, E. E. B.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 65(4-5), 367–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, L. C.

L. C. Campbell, M. J. Wilkinson, A. Manz, P. Camilleri, and C. J. Humphreys, “Electrophoretic manipulation of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated capillaries,” Lab Chip 4(3), 225–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Chin, S. L.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 145–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, T. Y.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

Couairon, A.

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, “Filamentation in Kerr media from pulsed Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courvoisier, F.

Craighead, H.

H. Craighead, “Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules,” Nature 442(7101), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Della Valle, G.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, “Filamentation in Kerr media from pulsed Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J. C.

J. Schwarz and J. C. Diels, “UV filaments and their application for laser-induced lightning and high-aspect-ratio hole drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 185–191 (2003).

Dou, Y.

Dudley, J. M.

Dugan, M.

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faccio, D.

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, “Filamentation in Kerr media from pulsed Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, “Filamentation in Kerr media from pulsed Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, E.

Furfaro, L.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1855–1859 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-6-1855 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

Grigoropoulos, C.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

D. J. Hwang, K. Hiromatsu, H. Hidai, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-guided glass drilling by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 555–558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasselbrink, E. F.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hidai, H.

D. J. Hwang, K. Hiromatsu, H. Hidai, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-guided glass drilling by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 555–558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiromatsu, K.

D. J. Hwang, K. Hiromatsu, H. Hidai, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-guided glass drilling by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 555–558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horn-Solle, H.

Humphreys, C. J.

L. C. Campbell, M. J. Wilkinson, A. Manz, P. Camilleri, and C. J. Humphreys, “Electrophoretic manipulation of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated capillaries,” Lab Chip 4(3), 225–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, A. J.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, D. J.

D. J. Hwang, K. Hiromatsu, H. Hidai, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-guided glass drilling by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 555–558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Jacquot, M.

Jiang, H.

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Ke, K.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiyama, S.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kizuka, Y.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, D.

Lacourt, P.-A.

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lorenz, M.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, L.

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manz, A.

L. C. Campbell, M. J. Wilkinson, A. Manz, P. Camilleri, and C. J. Humphreys, “Electrophoretic manipulation of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated capillaries,” Lab Chip 4(3), 225–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, Y.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morihira, Y.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, T.

Naumov, A.

Nguyen, N. T.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 145–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Osellame, R.

Polesana, P.

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, “Filamentation in Kerr media from pulsed Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramponi, R.

Rayner, D.

Richardson, K.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 311–315 (2003).

Richardson, M.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 311–315 (2003).

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 65(4-5), 367–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Said, A.

Saliminia, A.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 145–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, D.

Schwarz, J.

J. Schwarz and J. C. Diels, “UV filaments and their application for laser-induced lightning and high-aspect-ratio hole drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 185–191 (2003).

Shah, L.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 311–315 (2003).

Song, Z.

Stoian, R.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzortzakis, S.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallee, R.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 145–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 65(4-5), 367–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vishnubhatla, K. C.

Wahmer, M.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 65(4-5), 367–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Whitesides, G. M.

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, M. J.

L. C. Campbell, M. J. Wilkinson, A. Manz, P. Camilleri, and C. J. Humphreys, “Electrophoretic manipulation of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated capillaries,” Lab Chip 4(3), 225–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wortmann, D.

Yamada, K.

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1855–1859 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-6-1855 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Zoubir, A.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 311–315 (2003).

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 145–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (6)

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 311–315 (2003).

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hwang, K. Hiromatsu, H. Hidai, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Self-guided glass drilling by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 555–558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 65(4-5), 367–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwarz and J. C. Diels, “UV filaments and their application for laser-induced lightning and high-aspect-ratio hole drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 185–191 (2003).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, “Examination of Etching Agent and Etching Mechanism on Femotosecond Laser Microfabrication of Channels Inside Vitreous Silica Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11560–11566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

L. C. Campbell, M. J. Wilkinson, A. Manz, P. Camilleri, and C. J. Humphreys, “Electrophoretic manipulation of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated capillaries,” Lab Chip 4(3), 225–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Craighead, “Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules,” Nature 442(7101), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2120–2129 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2120 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1855–1859 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-6-1855 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. Corkum, “Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3208–3217 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3208 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1517–1522 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-1517 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8685–8695 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-10-8685 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Song, Z. Zhang, and T. Nakajima, “Transverse-mode dependence of femtosecond filamentation,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12217–12229 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12217 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, “Filamentation in Kerr media from pulsed Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

V. Zambon, N. McCarthy, and M. Piché, “Fabrication of photonic devices directly written in glass using ultrafast Bessel beams,” Proc. SPIE 7099, 70992J/1–5 (2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of Bessel beam generation, sample positioning and imaging setups.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Different focusing geometries as shown, with superimposed measured intensity profile of the Bessel beam. (b) Structures obtained for each focusing geometry (see text). For the two microtrench SEM images, numerically-extracted line profiles are also shown. The scales shown apply to both horizontal and vertical directions and the profiles are corrected for tilt. Beam directions are shown in the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results illustrating channel formation and evolution of channel length with number of shots at 100Hz repetition rate. Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) images are shown for (a) 7 μJ/pulse and (b) 10.7 μJ/pulse. The dark regions (on the right hand side of each image) are the microchannels whereas the lighter regions of modified material represent index change only. The central panel shows dependence of length on number of shots for 7 μJ/pulse energy. The dashed lines show the mean of 39 μm calculated over range 500-10000 shots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of channel length on repetition rate for a 7.6 μJ/pulse and 1000 laser shots. A particularly high-quality result showing a 2 μm channel with aspect ratio of around 40 observed at 50 Hz is shown as the inset to this figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of (a) channel length and (b) mean channel diameter as a function of energy per pulse, using 1000 laser shots at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. Results in (c) show DIC microscopy images of typical structures observed at each energy.

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