Abstract

Application specific LED packaging (ASLP) is an emerging technology for high performance LED lighting. We introduced a practical design method of compact freeform lens for extended sources used in ASLP. A new ASLP for road lighting was successfully obtained by integrating a polycarbonate compact freeform lens of small form factor with traditional LED packaging. Optical performance of the ASLP was investigated by both numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo ray tracing method and experiments. Results demonstrated that, comparing with traditional LED module integrated with secondary optics, the ASLP had advantages of much smaller size in volume (~1/8), higher system lumen efficiency (~8.1%), lower cost and more convenience for customers to design and assembly, enabling possible much wider applications of LED for general road lighting. Tolerance analyses were also conducted. Installation errors of horizontal and vertical deviations had more effects on the shape and uniformity of radiation pattern compared with rotational deviation. The tolerances of horizontal, vertical and rotational deviations of this lens were 0.11 mm, 0.14 mm and 2.4° respectively, which were acceptable in engineering.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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2009

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2005

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 1–10 (2005).

2004

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1994

Benítez, P.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blen, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaves, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 1–10 (2005).

Ding, Y.

Dross, O.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Falicoff, W.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P. F.

Hernández, M.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, Z. Y.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Minano, J. C.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohedano, R.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does far-field begin,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muschaweck, J.

Qian, K. Y.

Qin, Z.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rabl, A.

Ries, H.

Sun, C. C.

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does far-field begin,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Zheng, Z. R.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does far-field begin,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580R (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 1–10 (2005).

Other

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006).

S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, Design of LED Packaging for Lighting Applications (John Wiley and Sons, 2009), (to be published).

L. Piegl, and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book 2nd ed (Springer, 1996).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the concept of application specific LED packaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of extended sources on lighting performance of freeform lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of light energy mapping between source and target plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of generation of points on the outside surface of freeform lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of design target of ASLP for road lighting.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light intensity distribution curves of LED chip and LED chip coated by phosphor layer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A PC compact freeform lens for ASLP for road lighting.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of detail optical structures between (a) an ASLP and (b) a traditional LED packaging.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of size between (a) a traditional LED module and (b) the ASLP for road lighting.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulation lighting performance of the ASLP at height of 8 m.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Effects of installation errors on lighting performance of the ASLP: (a) horizontal deviation dH; (b) vertical deviation dV and (c) rotational deviation θR.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Front view of and (b) left view of a PC domed lens (left) and a PC compact freeform lens (right).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

White light ASLP for road lighting.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Traditional LED packaging, (b) ASLP and (c) LED module for road lighting.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Lighting performance of (a) a traditional LED packaging and (b) the ASLP.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Illuminance distribution of radiation pattern of the ASLP.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation comparison of system optical efficiencies between traditional LED module and ASLP for road lighting

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental comparison of system lumen efficiencies between the traditional LED module and the ASLP for road lighting

Equations (7)

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ϕ ( u , v ) = v j v j + 1 u i u i + 1 I ( u , v ) sin u d u d v
0 π / 2 0 u i I ( u , v ) sin u d u d v = i ϕ t o t a l M    ( i = 0 , 1 , ... M )
0 v j 0 π / 2 I ( u , v ) sin u d u d v = j ϕ t o t a l N    ( j = 0 , 1 , ... N )
W g r i d , i = C W i a M    ( i = 0 , 1 , ... M )
L g r i d , j = C L j b N    ( j = 0 , 1 , ... N )
[ 1 + n 2 2 n ( O I ) ] 1 / 2 N = O n I
η E L A = A E L E A E L 0

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