Abstract

We propose a scheme for an experimental verification of the reversed Cherenkov effect in left-handed media. The scheme uses optical-to-terahertz conversion in a planar sandwichlike structure that consists of a nonlinear core cladded with a material that exhibits left-handedness at terahertz frequencies. The focused into a line femtosecond laser pulse propagates in the core and emits Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the cladding. We developed a theory that describes terahertz generation in such a structure and calculated spatial distribution of the generated terahertz field, its energy spectrum, and optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency. The proposed structure can be a useful tool for characterization of the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials in the terahertz frequency range.

©2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. E. Pafomov, “On transition radiation and the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 36, 1853–1858 (1959) (Sov. Phys. JETP 9, 1321 (1959)).
  2. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 92, 517–526 (1967) (Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509–514 (1968)).
  3. J. Lu, T. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Yu. O. Averkov and V. M. Yakovenko, “Cherenkov radiation by an electron bunch that moves in a vacuum above a left-handed material,” Phys. Rev. B 72(20), 205110 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z. Y. Duan, Y. B. Gong, Y. Y. Wei, W. X. Wang, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Theoretical investigation into Cherenkov radiation in an anisotropic double-negative medium,” in Proceedings of 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadena, Calif., 2008).
  6. Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Reversed Cherenkov radiation in a waveguide filled with anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063303 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cherenkov radiation in anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18479–18484 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, S. Xi, H. S. Chen, and M. Chen, “Research progress in reversed Cherenkov radiation in double-negative metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research  PIER 90, 75–87 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. A. Askar’yan, “Cherenkov radiation from optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(19), 2470 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, “Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. B. Bodrov, A. N. Stepanov, M. I. Bakunov, B. V. Shishkin, I. E. Ilyakov, and R. A. Akhmedzhanov, “Highly efficient optical-to-terahertz conversion in a sandwich structure with LiNbO3 core,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1871–1879 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative-index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123505 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, “Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electro-optic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085346 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, S. Xi, H. S. Chen, and M. Chen, “Research progress in reversed Cherenkov radiation in double-negative metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research  PIER 90, 75–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. B. Bodrov, A. N. Stepanov, M. I. Bakunov, B. V. Shishkin, I. E. Ilyakov, and R. A. Akhmedzhanov, “Highly efficient optical-to-terahertz conversion in a sandwich structure with LiNbO3 core,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1871–1879 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cherenkov radiation in anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18479–18484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, “Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Reversed Cherenkov radiation in a waveguide filled with anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063303 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, “Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electro-optic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085346 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative-index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu. O. Averkov and V. M. Yakovenko, “Cherenkov radiation by an electron bunch that moves in a vacuum above a left-handed material,” Phys. Rev. B 72(20), 205110 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

G. A. Askar’yan, “Cherenkov radiation from optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(19), 2470 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 92, 517–526 (1967) (Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509–514 (1968)).

1959 (1)

V. E. Pafomov, “On transition radiation and the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 36, 1853–1858 (1959) (Sov. Phys. JETP 9, 1321 (1959)).

Akhmedzhanov, R. A.

Almási, G.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Antipov, S.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Askar’yan, G. A.

G. A. Askar’yan, “Cherenkov radiation from optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(19), 2470 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averkov, Yu. O.

Yu. O. Averkov and V. M. Yakovenko, “Cherenkov radiation by an electron bunch that moves in a vacuum above a left-handed material,” Phys. Rev. B 72(20), 205110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bakunov, M. I.

S. B. Bodrov, A. N. Stepanov, M. I. Bakunov, B. V. Shishkin, I. E. Ilyakov, and R. A. Akhmedzhanov, “Highly efficient optical-to-terahertz conversion in a sandwich structure with LiNbO3 core,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1871–1879 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, “Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, “Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electro-optic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085346 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bartal, B.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bodrov, S. B.

S. B. Bodrov, A. N. Stepanov, M. I. Bakunov, B. V. Shishkin, I. E. Ilyakov, and R. A. Akhmedzhanov, “Highly efficient optical-to-terahertz conversion in a sandwich structure with LiNbO3 core,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1871–1879 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, “Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, “Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electro-optic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085346 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. S.

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, S. Xi, H. S. Chen, and M. Chen, “Research progress in reversed Cherenkov radiation in double-negative metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research  PIER 90, 75–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, S. Xi, H. S. Chen, and M. Chen, “Research progress in reversed Cherenkov radiation in double-negative metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research  PIER 90, 75–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Reversed Cherenkov radiation in a waveguide filled with anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cherenkov radiation in anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18479–18484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lu, T. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conde, M.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Duan, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, S. Xi, H. S. Chen, and M. Chen, “Research progress in reversed Cherenkov radiation in double-negative metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research  PIER 90, 75–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Reversed Cherenkov radiation in a waveguide filled with anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cherenkov radiation in anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18479–18484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative-index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

Franchini, F.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gai, W.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grzegorczyk, T.

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hangyo, M.

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, “Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, “Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electro-optic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085346 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hebling, J.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123505 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huangfu, J.

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ilyakov, I. E.

Jiang, T.

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jing, C.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kafesaki, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative-index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

Konecny, R.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kong, J. A.

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Reversed Cherenkov radiation in a waveguide filled with anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cherenkov radiation in anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18479–18484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lu, T. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozma, I. Z.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuhl, J.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123505 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

Maslov, A. V.

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, “Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electro-optic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085346 (2007).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, S.

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pacheco, J.

Pafomov, V. E.

V. E. Pafomov, “On transition radiation and the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 36, 1853–1858 (1959) (Sov. Phys. JETP 9, 1321 (1959)).

Pálfalvi, L.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peng, L.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Péter, Á.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Polgár, K.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Power, J. G.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ran, L.

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riedle, E.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkin, B. V.

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative-index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spentzouris, L.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A. G.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A. N.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 92, 517–526 (1967) (Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509–514 (1968)).

Wu, B.-I.

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, S. Xi, H. S. Chen, and M. Chen, “Research progress in reversed Cherenkov radiation in double-negative metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research  PIER 90, 75–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Reversed Cherenkov radiation in a waveguide filled with anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cherenkov radiation in anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18479–18484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lu, T. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, S.

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, S. Xi, H. S. Chen, and M. Chen, “Research progress in reversed Cherenkov radiation in double-negative metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research  PIER 90, 75–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yakovenko, V. M.

Yu. O. Averkov and V. M. Yakovenko, “Cherenkov radiation by an electron bunch that moves in a vacuum above a left-handed material,” Phys. Rev. B 72(20), 205110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yusof, Z.

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative-index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 419–423 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123505 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, “Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, J. Lu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Reversed Cherenkov radiation in a waveguide filled with anisotropic double-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063303 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Antipov, L. Spentzouris, W. Gai, M. Conde, F. Franchini, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. Yusof, and C. Jing, “Observation of wakefield generation in left-handed band of metamaterial-loaded waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014901 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Yu. O. Averkov and V. M. Yakovenko, “Cherenkov radiation by an electron bunch that moves in a vacuum above a left-handed material,” Phys. Rev. B 72(20), 205110 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, “Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electro-optic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085346 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation in left-handed metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(19), 194801 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Askar’yan, “Cherenkov radiation from optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(19), 2470 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Progress In Electromagnetic Research (1)

Z. Y. Duan, B.-I. Wu, S. Xi, H. S. Chen, and M. Chen, “Research progress in reversed Cherenkov radiation in double-negative metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research  PIER 90, 75–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Usp. Fiziol. Nauk (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 92, 517–526 (1967) (Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509–514 (1968)).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. E. Pafomov, “On transition radiation and the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 36, 1853–1858 (1959) (Sov. Phys. JETP 9, 1321 (1959)).

Other (1)

Z. Y. Duan, Y. B. Gong, Y. Y. Wei, W. X. Wang, B.-I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Theoretical investigation into Cherenkov radiation in an anisotropic double-negative medium,” in Proceedings of 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadena, Calif., 2008).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Generation scheme. An optical pulse focused to a line propagates in the nonlinear core of the sandwich structure and excites Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the output LH prisms. The arrows show the Poynting vector of the direct (S) d ) and reversed (S) r ) components of the Cherenkov radiation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Real (solid) and imaginary (dashed) parts of np = ε p = μ p as functions of ω.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Snapshot of the electric field Ey (x,z,t) at t = 0 produced in a sandwich structure with a = 40 μm by a Ti:sapphire laser pulse with duration τFWHM = 100 fs and peak intensity I 0 = 40 GW/cm2 (W opt = 8.5 μJ/cm). The core boundaries are shown with the horizontal lines. (b,c) The components of the radiation pattern in the output prism corresponding to direct (b) and reversed (c) Cherenkov radiation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The frequency ω of a partial plane wave (a) and the stationary frequency ωs (b) as functions of θ.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The spectral density of terahertz fluence 2πw[ω/(2π)] for different a (shown near the corresponding curves). The peak optical intensity is fixed to I 0 = 40 GW/cm2 for all curves and τFWHM = 100 fs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The terahertz fluences (a) Wr and (b) Wd as functions of a and τFWHM for the fixed peak optical intensity I 0 = 40 GW/cm2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The conversion efficiencies (a) η r and (b) η d as functions of a and τFWHM for the fixed optical pulse energy W opt = 8.5 μJ/cm.

Equations (16)

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P ˜ NL = p ( ω ) F ˜ ( ω ) G ( x ) , F ˜ = τ / ( 2 π ) e ω 2 τ 2 / 4 ,
ω × E ˜ = i ω c μ H ˜ , ω × H ˜ = i ω c ε E ˜ + 4 π i ω c P ˜ NL ,
ε p ( ω ) = 1 ω e p 2 ω e 0 2 ω 2 ω e 0 2 i ω γ e , μ p ( ω ) = 1 ω m p 2 ω m 0 2 ω 2 ω m 0 2 i ω γ m ,
H ˜ x = n g μ E ˜ y , H ˜ z = c i ω μ E ˜ y x ,
μ x ( 1 μ E ˜ y x ) + κ 2 E ˜ y = 4 π μ ω 2 p c 2 F ˜ ( ω ) G ( x ) .
κ 2 = ( ω / c ) 2 [ ε ( ω , x ) μ ( ω , x ) n g 2 ] .
E ˜ y = { C 1 e i κ p ( x a / 2 ) ,                           x > a / 2 C 2 e i κ c x + C 3 e i κ c x + R ( x ) ,         | x | < a / 2 C 4 e i κ p ( x + a / 2 ) ,                            x < a / 2
R ( x ) = 2 π ω 2 p i κ c c 2 F ˜ a / 2 a / 2 d x G ( x ) e i κ c | x x | ,
C 2 = C 3 = C 1 e i k c a / 2 [ 1 κ p ( κ c μ p ) 1 ] / 2 ,
C 1 = C 4 = 2 π ω 2 p F ˜ ( e i κ c a / 2 e i κ c a / 2 ) κ c c 2 Λ [ ( κ c a ) 2 ( 2 π ) 2 1 ] ,
Λ = ( κ p μ p 1 + κ c ) e i κ c a / 2 + ( κ p μ p 1 κ c ) e i κ c a / 2 .
E y ( ξ , x ) = d ω E ˜ y ( ω , x ) e i ω ξ
W = 0 d ω w ( ω ) ,
w ( ω ) = ( c 2 / ω ) | C 1 | 2 Re ( κ p / μ p ) .
η = W / W opt ,
V d d ω Re κ p = V ξ | x | = cot θ .

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