Abstract

An instrument permitting visual testing in white light following the correction of spherical aberration (SA) and longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) was used to explore the visual effect of the combined correction of SA and LCA in future new intraocular lenses (IOLs). The LCA of the eye was corrected using a diffractive element and SA was controlled by an adaptive optics instrument. A visual channel in the system allows for the measurement of visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) at 6 c/deg in three subjects, for the four different conditions resulting from the combination of the presence or absence of LCA and SA. In the cases where SA is present, the average SA value found in pseudophakic patients is induced. Improvements in VA were found when SA alone or combined with LCA were corrected. For CS, only the combined correction of SA and LCA provided a significant improvement over the uncorrected case. The visual improvement provided by the correction of SA was higher than that from correcting LCA, while the combined correction of LCA and SA provided the best visual performance. This suggests that an aspheric achromatic IOL may provide some visual benefit when compared to standard IOLs.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (2)

P. Artal, “History of IOLs that correct spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 962–963, author reply 963–964 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Baumeister, J. Bühren, and T. Kohnen, “Tilt and decentration of spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses: effect on higher-order aberrations,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1006–1012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, “Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1538–1544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, N. Gorceix, and P. Artal, “Use of adaptive optics to determine the optimal ocular spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1721–1726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao and M. A. Mainster, “The effect of chromatic dispersion on pseudophakic optical performance,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(9), 1225–1229 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. Tabernero, P. Piers, A. Benito, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Predicting the optical performance of eyes implanted with IOLs to correct spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4651–4658 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6213–6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, “The human eye is an example of robust optical design,” J. Vis. 6(1), 1–7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, “Neural compensation for the eye’s optical aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 281–287 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

U. Mester, P. Dillinger, and N. Anterist, “Impact of a modified optic design on visual function: clinical comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(4), 652–660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Kershner, “Retinal image contrast and functional visual performance with aspheric, silicone, and acrylic intraocular lenses. Prospective evaluation,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(9), 1684–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (8)

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, “Prospective randomized trial of an anterior surface modified prolate intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 692–696 (2002).
[PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(9), 1143–1151 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. S. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, P. M. Prieto, and S. A. Burns, “Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur,” Nature 417(6885), 174–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Yoon and D. R. Williams, “Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(2), 266–275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41(28), 3861–3871 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, “Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(8), 1793–1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(10), 1697–1702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(8), 1388–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Diaz, M. Irlbauer, and J. A. Martinez, “Diffractive-refractive hybrid doublet to achromatize the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(14), 2223–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Nio, N. M. Jansonius, V. Fidler, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and A. C. Kooijman, “Age-related changes of defocus-specific contrast sensitivity in healthy subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20(4), 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, “Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(7), 1351–1355 (1999).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

1992 (3)

D. A. Atchison, M. Ye, A. Bradley, M. J. Collins, X. X. Zhang, H. A. Rahman, and L. N. Thibos, “Chromatic aberration and optical power of a diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 797–804 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bradley, “Glenn A. Fry Award Lecture 1991: perceptual manifestations of imperfect optics in the human eye: attempts to correct for ocular chromatic aberration,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(7), 515–521 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. X. Zhang, and A. Bradley, “The chromatic eye. A new reduced eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in humans,” Appl. Opt. 31(19), 3594–3600 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

P. A. Howarth and A. Bradley, “The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction,” Vision Res. 26(2), 361–366 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33(2), 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, “A modified achromatizing lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59(11), 909–911 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, “Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye,” Vision Res. 16(9), 999–1005 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, “Effect of chromatic aberration on visual acuity,” Journal of Physiology-London 192, 345 (1967).

1957 (1)

1947 (1)

1946 (1)

Anterist, N.

U. Mester, P. Dillinger, and N. Anterist, “Impact of a modified optic design on visual function: clinical comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(4), 652–660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, “Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(7), 1351–1355 (1999).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

P. Artal, “History of IOLs that correct spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 962–963, author reply 963–964 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal and J. Tabernero, “The eye's aplanatic answer,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 586–589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Manzanera, C. Canovas, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “A wavelength tunable wavefront sensor for the human eye,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7748–7755 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, “Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1538–1544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, N. Gorceix, and P. Artal, “Use of adaptive optics to determine the optimal ocular spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1721–1726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, “The human eye is an example of robust optical design,” J. Vis. 6(1), 1–7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, P. Piers, A. Benito, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Predicting the optical performance of eyes implanted with IOLs to correct spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4651–4658 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6213–6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, “Neural compensation for the eye’s optical aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 281–287 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(9), 1143–1151 (2002).
[PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(8), 1388–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(10), 1697–1702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, M. Ye, A. Bradley, M. J. Collins, X. X. Zhang, H. A. Rahman, and L. N. Thibos, “Chromatic aberration and optical power of a diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 797–804 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraibar, B.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41(28), 3861–3871 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumeister, M.

M. Baumeister, J. Bühren, and T. Kohnen, “Tilt and decentration of spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses: effect on higher-order aberrations,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1006–1012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedford, R. E.

Benito, A.

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, “The human eye is an example of robust optical design,” J. Vis. 6(1), 1–7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, P. Piers, A. Benito, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Predicting the optical performance of eyes implanted with IOLs to correct spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4651–4658 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benny, Y.

Berrio, E.

Bradley, A.

S. Ravikumar, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Calculation of retinal image quality for polychromatic light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2395–2407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. X. Zhang, and A. Bradley, “The chromatic eye. A new reduced eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in humans,” Appl. Opt. 31(19), 3594–3600 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bradley, “Glenn A. Fry Award Lecture 1991: perceptual manifestations of imperfect optics in the human eye: attempts to correct for ocular chromatic aberration,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(7), 515–521 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, M. Ye, A. Bradley, M. J. Collins, X. X. Zhang, H. A. Rahman, and L. N. Thibos, “Chromatic aberration and optical power of a diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 797–804 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, “Achromatizing the human eye: the problem of chromatic parallax,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8(4), 686–691 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Howarth and A. Bradley, “The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction,” Vision Res. 26(2), 361–366 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bühren, J.

M. Baumeister, J. Bühren, and T. Kohnen, “Tilt and decentration of spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses: effect on higher-order aberrations,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1006–1012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buralli, D. A.

Burns, S. A.

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, P. M. Prieto, and S. A. Burns, “Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur,” Nature 417(6885), 174–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41(28), 3861–3871 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, “Effect of chromatic aberration on visual acuity,” Journal of Physiology-London 192, 345 (1967).

Canovas, C.

Castejón-Mochón, J. F.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, “Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye,” Vision Res. 16(9), 999–1005 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, “Neural compensation for the eye’s optical aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 281–287 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chisholm, W.

Collins, M. J.

D. A. Atchison, M. Ye, A. Bradley, M. J. Collins, X. X. Zhang, H. A. Rahman, and L. N. Thibos, “Chromatic aberration and optical power of a diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 797–804 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, I. G.

Diaz, J. A.

J. A. Diaz, M. Irlbauer, and J. A. Martinez, “Diffractive-refractive hybrid doublet to achromatize the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(14), 2223–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dillinger, P.

U. Mester, P. Dillinger, and N. Anterist, “Impact of a modified optic design on visual function: clinical comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(4), 652–660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Fernandez, E. J.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, E. J.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6213–6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, “Neural compensation for the eye’s optical aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 281–287 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

Fidler, V.

Y. K. Nio, N. M. Jansonius, V. Fidler, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and A. C. Kooijman, “Age-related changes of defocus-specific contrast sensitivity in healthy subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20(4), 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fine, I. H.

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, “Prospective randomized trial of an anterior surface modified prolate intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 692–696 (2002).
[PubMed]

Geraghty, E.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(9), 1143–1151 (2002).
[PubMed]

Y. K. Nio, N. M. Jansonius, V. Fidler, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and A. C. Kooijman, “Age-related changes of defocus-specific contrast sensitivity in healthy subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20(4), 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Gorceix, N.

P. A. Piers, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, N. Gorceix, and P. Artal, “Use of adaptive optics to determine the optimal ocular spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1721–1726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, D. R.

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, “Effect of chromatic aberration on visual acuity,” Journal of Physiology-London 192, 345 (1967).

Guirao, A.

Hermann, B.

Hoffman, R. S.

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, “Prospective randomized trial of an anterior surface modified prolate intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 692–696 (2002).
[PubMed]

Holladay, J. T.

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. S. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Howarth, P. A.

P. A. Howarth and A. Bradley, “The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction,” Vision Res. 26(2), 361–366 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howland, H. C.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, “Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(7), 1351–1355 (1999).
[PubMed]

Irlbauer, M.

J. A. Diaz, M. Irlbauer, and J. A. Martinez, “Diffractive-refractive hybrid doublet to achromatize the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(14), 2223–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jansonius, N. M.

Y. K. Nio, N. M. Jansonius, V. Fidler, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and A. C. Kooijman, “Age-related changes of defocus-specific contrast sensitivity in healthy subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20(4), 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennings, J. A. M.

W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, “Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye,” Vision Res. 16(9), 999–1005 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, M.

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, “A modified achromatizing lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59(11), 909–911 (1982).
[PubMed]

Kershner, R. M.

R. M. Kershner, “Retinal image contrast and functional visual performance with aspheric, silicone, and acrylic intraocular lenses. Prospective evaluation,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(9), 1684–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klyce, S. D.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, “Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(7), 1351–1355 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kohnen, T.

M. Baumeister, J. Bühren, and T. Kohnen, “Tilt and decentration of spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses: effect on higher-order aberrations,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1006–1012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooijman, A. C.

Y. K. Nio, N. M. Jansonius, V. Fidler, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and A. C. Kooijman, “Age-related changes of defocus-specific contrast sensitivity in healthy subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20(4), 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koranyi, G.

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. S. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lewis, A. L.

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, “A modified achromatizing lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59(11), 909–911 (1982).
[PubMed]

Lidkea, B.

López-Gil, N.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainster, M. A.

H. Zhao and M. A. Mainster, “The effect of chromatic dispersion on pseudophakic optical performance,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(9), 1225–1229 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzanera, S.

S. Manzanera, C. Canovas, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “A wavelength tunable wavefront sensor for the human eye,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7748–7755 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, “Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1538–1544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, N. Gorceix, and P. Artal, “Use of adaptive optics to determine the optimal ocular spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1721–1726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, “Neural compensation for the eye’s optical aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 281–287 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

Marcos, S.

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, P. M. Prieto, and S. A. Burns, “Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur,” Nature 417(6885), 174–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41(28), 3861–3871 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, J. A.

J. A. Diaz, M. Irlbauer, and J. A. Martinez, “Diffractive-refractive hybrid doublet to achromatize the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(14), 2223–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McLellan, J. S.

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, P. M. Prieto, and S. A. Burns, “Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur,” Nature 417(6885), 174–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mester, U.

U. Mester, P. Dillinger, and N. Anterist, “Impact of a modified optic design on visual function: clinical comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(4), 652–660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

Navarro, R.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41(28), 3861–3871 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nio, Y. K.

Y. K. Nio, N. M. Jansonius, V. Fidler, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and A. C. Kooijman, “Age-related changes of defocus-specific contrast sensitivity in healthy subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20(4), 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norrby, N. E. S.

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. S. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Norrby, S.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(9), 1143–1151 (2002).
[PubMed]

Y. K. Nio, N. M. Jansonius, V. Fidler, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and A. C. Kooijman, “Age-related changes of defocus-specific contrast sensitivity in healthy subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20(4), 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehrlein, C.

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, “A modified achromatizing lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59(11), 909–911 (1982).
[PubMed]

Oshika, T.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, “Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(7), 1351–1355 (1999).
[PubMed]

Packer, M.

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, “Prospective randomized trial of an anterior surface modified prolate intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 692–696 (2002).
[PubMed]

Pelli, D. G.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33(2), 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piers, P.

J. Tabernero, P. Piers, A. Benito, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Predicting the optical performance of eyes implanted with IOLs to correct spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4651–4658 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(9), 1143–1151 (2002).
[PubMed]

P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piers, P. A.

P. A. Piers, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, N. Gorceix, and P. Artal, “Use of adaptive optics to determine the optimal ocular spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1721–1726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. S. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, “Prospective randomized trial of an anterior surface modified prolate intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 692–696 (2002).
[PubMed]

Porter, J.

Povazay, B.

Powell, I.

Prieto, P. M.

S. Manzanera, C. Canovas, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “A wavelength tunable wavefront sensor for the human eye,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7748–7755 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, “Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1538–1544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, N. Gorceix, and P. Artal, “Use of adaptive optics to determine the optimal ocular spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1721–1726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, P. M. Prieto, and S. A. Burns, “Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur,” Nature 417(6885), 174–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41(28), 3861–3871 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(8), 1388–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, H. A.

D. A. Atchison, M. Ye, A. Bradley, M. J. Collins, X. X. Zhang, H. A. Rahman, and L. N. Thibos, “Chromatic aberration and optical power of a diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 797–804 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravikumar, S.

Redondo, M.

J. Tabernero, P. Piers, A. Benito, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Predicting the optical performance of eyes implanted with IOLs to correct spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4651–4658 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(9), 1143–1151 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(10), 1697–1702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ribak, E. N.

Rogers, J. R.

Rynders, M.

Singer, B.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, “Neural compensation for the eye’s optical aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 281–287 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabernero, J.

P. Artal and J. Tabernero, “The eye's aplanatic answer,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 586–589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, “The human eye is an example of robust optical design,” J. Vis. 6(1), 1–7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, P. Piers, A. Benito, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Predicting the optical performance of eyes implanted with IOLs to correct spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4651–4658 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

Unterhuber, A.

van der Mooren, M.

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. S. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Van Heel, A. C. S.

Vargas-Martin, F.

Wald, G.

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33(2), 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Wyszecki, G.

Ye, M.

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. X. Zhang, and A. Bradley, “The chromatic eye. A new reduced eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in humans,” Appl. Opt. 31(19), 3594–3600 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, M. Ye, A. Bradley, M. J. Collins, X. X. Zhang, H. A. Rahman, and L. N. Thibos, “Chromatic aberration and optical power of a diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 797–804 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, G. Y.

Zhang, X. X.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao and M. A. Mainster, “The effect of chromatic dispersion on pseudophakic optical performance,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(9), 1225–1229 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, “A modified achromatizing lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59(11), 909–911 (1982).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(9), 1143–1151 (2002).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Zhao and M. A. Mainster, “The effect of chromatic dispersion on pseudophakic optical performance,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91(9), 1225–1229 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, P. Piers, A. Benito, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Predicting the optical performance of eyes implanted with IOLs to correct spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(10), 4651–4658 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, “Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(7), 1351–1355 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (5)

P. Artal, “History of IOLs that correct spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 962–963, author reply 963–964 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mester, P. Dillinger, and N. Anterist, “Impact of a modified optic design on visual function: clinical comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(4), 652–660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Kershner, “Retinal image contrast and functional visual performance with aspheric, silicone, and acrylic intraocular lenses. Prospective evaluation,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(9), 1684–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Piers, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, N. Gorceix, and P. Artal, “Use of adaptive optics to determine the optimal ocular spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1721–1726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Baumeister, J. Bühren, and T. Kohnen, “Tilt and decentration of spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses: effect on higher-order aberrations,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1006–1012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. A. Diaz, M. Irlbauer, and J. A. Martinez, “Diffractive-refractive hybrid doublet to achromatize the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(14), 2223–2234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (9)

X. X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, “Achromatizing the human eye: the problem of chromatic parallax,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8(4), 686–691 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, “Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(10), 1697–1702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, “Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(8), 1793–1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, “Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1538–1544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(8), 1388–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rynders, B. Lidkea, W. Chisholm, and L. N. Thibos, “Statistical distribution of foveal transverse chromatic aberration, pupil centration, and angle-psi in a population of young-adult eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(10), 2348–2357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Ravikumar, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Calculation of retinal image quality for polychromatic light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2395–2407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Yoon and D. R. Williams, “Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(2), 266–275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg. (3)

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, “Prospective randomized trial of an anterior surface modified prolate intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 692–696 (2002).
[PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S634–S638 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. S. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(6), 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Vis. (2)

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, “Neural compensation for the eye’s optical aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 281–287 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, “The human eye is an example of robust optical design,” J. Vis. 6(1), 1–7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Journal of Physiology-London (1)

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, “Effect of chromatic aberration on visual acuity,” Journal of Physiology-London 192, 345 (1967).

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Artal and J. Tabernero, “The eye's aplanatic answer,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 586–589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, P. M. Prieto, and S. A. Burns, “Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur,” Nature 417(6885), 174–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

Y. K. Nio, N. M. Jansonius, V. Fidler, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and A. C. Kooijman, “Age-related changes of defocus-specific contrast sensitivity in healthy subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20(4), 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

A. Bradley, “Glenn A. Fry Award Lecture 1991: perceptual manifestations of imperfect optics in the human eye: attempts to correct for ocular chromatic aberration,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(7), 515–521 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, M. Ye, A. Bradley, M. J. Collins, X. X. Zhang, H. A. Rahman, and L. N. Thibos, “Chromatic aberration and optical power of a diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 797–804 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33(2), 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, and B. Baraibar, “Investigating sources of variability of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across eyes,” Vision Res. 41(28), 3861–3871 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, “Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye,” Vision Res. 16(9), 999–1005 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Howarth and A. Bradley, “The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction,” Vision Res. 26(2), 361–366 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

P. Piers, and H. Weeber, “Ophthalmic lens,” US Patent 6,830,332, Dec. 14, 2004.

C. Lapicque, “La formation des Images retiniennes,” (Ed. de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, 1937).

I. De Loewenfeld, “Pupillary changes related to age,” in Topics in Neuro-Ophthalmology, T. HS, ed. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1979), pp. 124–150.

M. Bass, E. van Stryland, D. Williams, and W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics. Fundamentals, techniques & design (Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the adaptive optics system. A near infrared diode laser illuminates the eye and a set of telescopic relays imaged the eye pupil plane onto the membrane deformable mirror (MDM) and the H-S sensor. Both elements working in closed-loop set the target wave aberration. At the same time, the subject can perform visual tests through the modified aberrations using the CRT monitor with the vision limited to an artificial pupil, due to aperture A1. A motorized Badal optometer allows changing the focus in the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the optical setup used to objectively measure the chromatic aberration induced by the LCA corrector. For simplicity, most of the optical system shown in Fig. 1, is omitted. A wavelength tunable wavefront sensor is implemented on the adaptive optics system. The Xe-lamp and the set of interference filters illuminate the achromatizer plate at different wavelengths in the visible range. A detailed view of the achromatizer plate and its diffractive structure is also shown

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wave aberrations at different wavelengths of the LCA corrector, measured by means of the white-light H-S sensor. In the upper row is shown the whole aberration, including defocus, for each wavelength. In the lower row only the higher-order terms, with the corresponding RMS for a 5.5 mm pupil, are shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LCA induced by the achromatizer plate and the optical setup through which the visual test was performed later. It is compared with the LCA predicted by the Chromatic Eye model, showing that, as expected in the design stage of the achromatizer prototype, both chromatic aberrations are opposite.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diagram of the changes introduced in the adaptive optics system for measuring the quality of the LCA correction in real eyes. The white-light lamp and the interference filters are used to illuminate at different wavelengths a slide that is seen by the subject through the achromatizer plate. The subject, for each wavelength, must bring in focus the image in the slide, using the Badal optometer. From the different Badal positions for each wavelength, the total LCA is obtained.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LCA (with and without the corrector) in three subjects (PA, SM and HW). Dashed lines with open symbol represent the measured natural LCA, and solid lines with filled symbols the corrected LCA . Curves were shifted to cancel out defocus at 532 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

VA of the subjects PA, SM, HW and the average across them with spherical aberration and chromatic aberration similar to that of the average pseudophakic patient’s eye, corrected spherical aberration, corrected chromatic aberration and corrected spherical and chromatic aberration. (Error bar represents standard deviations).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CS at 6 cycles/degree for subjects PA, SM, HW and the average across them with spherical aberration and chromatic aberration similar to that of the average pseudophakic patient, corrected spherical aberration, corrected chromatic aberration and corrected spherical and chromatic aberration. (Error bar represents standard deviations).

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