Abstract

The use of intersubband transitions in quantum cascade structures for thermophotovoltaic energy conversion is investigated numerically. The intrinsic cascading scheme, spectral agility, and design flexibility of these structures make them ideally suited to the development of high efficiency multiple-junction thermophotovoltaic detectors. A specific implementation of this device concept is designed, based on bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in large-conduction-band-offset In0.7Ga0.3As/AlAs0.8Sb0.2 quantum wells. The device electrical characteristics in the presence of thermal radiation from a blackbody source at 1300 K are calculated, from which a maximum extracted power density of 1.4 W/cm2 is determined. This value compares favorably with the present state-of-the-art in interband thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, indicating that quantum cascade photodetectors may provide a promising approach to improve energy extraction from thermal sources.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bhusal and A. Freundlich, “GaAsN/InAsN superlattice based multijunction thermophotovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. M. Fraas, J. E. Avery, H. X. Huang, and R. U. Martinelli, “Thermophotovoltaic system configurations and spectral control,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S165–S173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Emery, “Characterizing thermophotovoltaic cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S228–S231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. C. Iotti, A. Tredicucci, and F. Rossi, “Design and simulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3920–3922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III-V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, “Near-unity quantum efficiency of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well infrared detectors using a waveguide with a doubly periodic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(7), 857–859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, J. Y.

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, “Near-unity quantum efficiency of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well infrared detectors using a waveguide with a doubly periodic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(7), 857–859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anikeev, S.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avery, J. E.

L. M. Fraas, J. E. Avery, H. X. Huang, and R. U. Martinelli, “Thermophotovoltaic system configurations and spectral control,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S165–S173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bahir, G.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baldasaro, P. F.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ballinger, C. T.

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, E.

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beausang, J. F.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belenki, G. L.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhusal, L.

L. Bhusal and A. Freundlich, “GaAsN/InAsN superlattice based multijunction thermophotovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borrego, J. M.

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bougerol, C.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. J.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S. R.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carras, M.

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charache, G. W.

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Charles, W. O.

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cockburn, J. W.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Connors, M. K.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, L. R.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dashiell, M. W.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davies, G.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DePoy, D. M.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Donetski, D.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, T.

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, G.

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ehsani, H.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

K. Emery, “Characterizing thermophotovoltaic cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S228–S231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fourspring, P. M.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fraas, L. M.

L. M. Fraas, J. E. Avery, H. X. Huang, and R. U. Martinelli, “Thermophotovoltaic system configurations and spectral control,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S165–S173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franz, K. J.

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freundlich, A.

L. Bhusal and A. Freundlich, “GaAsN/InAsN superlattice based multijunction thermophotovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, L.

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giorgetta, F. R.

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, A.

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graf, M.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, F.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A. J.

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. X.

L. M. Fraas, J. E. Avery, H. X. Huang, and R. U. Martinelli, “Thermophotovoltaic system configurations and spectral control,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S165–S173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, R. K.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, A.

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, R. C. Iotti, A. Tredicucci, and F. Rossi, “Design and simulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3920–3922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F. H.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, K.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koeniguer, C.

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, K.

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, R. C. Iotti, A. Tredicucci, and F. Rossi, “Design and simulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3920–3922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krysa, A. B.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Link, S. D.

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lundqvist, L.

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, “Near-unity quantum efficiency of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well infrared detectors using a waveguide with a doubly periodic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(7), 857–859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Luryi, S.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahorter, R. G.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manz, C.

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

L. M. Fraas, J. E. Avery, H. X. Huang, and R. U. Martinelli, “Thermophotovoltaic system configurations and spectral control,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S165–S173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Messham, R. L.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III-V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. S.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murray, S.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newman, F.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, G. J.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, V.

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palmisiano, M. N.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rahmlow, T.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rahner, K. D.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ram-Mohan, L. R.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III-V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raynolds, J. E.

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Revin, D. G.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, R. C. Iotti, A. Tredicucci, and F. Rossi, “Design and simulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3920–3922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schacham, S. E.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmuck, G. P.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, R. W.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shellenbarger, Z. A.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, A.

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siergiej, R. R.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinharoy, S.

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talamo, P.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamargo, M. C.

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, G.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tchernycheva, M.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Topper, W. F.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, R. C. Iotti, A. Tredicucci, and F. Rossi, “Design and simulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3920–3922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. W.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valko, T.

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vardi, A.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III-V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. A.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wehrer, R. J.

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wernsman, B.

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

R. R. Siergiej, S. Sinharoy, T. Valko, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. D. Link, R. W. Schultz, and R. L. Messham, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem TPV device,” AIP Conf. Proc. 738, 480–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, “Near-unity quantum efficiency of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well infrared detectors using a waveguide with a doubly periodic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(7), 857–859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. C. Iotti, A. Tredicucci, and F. Rossi, “Design and simulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3920–3922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (2)

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. DePoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenki, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Bhusal and A. Freundlich, “GaAsN/InAsN superlattice based multijunction thermophotovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III-V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
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L. M. Fraas, J. E. Avery, H. X. Huang, and R. U. Martinelli, “Thermophotovoltaic system configurations and spectral control,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S165–S173 (2003).
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Other (5)

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O. Madelung, ed., Semiconductors – Basic Data, second edition (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

M. Helm, “The basic physics of intersubband transitions,” in Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Device Applications I, H. C. Liu and F. Capasso, eds. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2000).

P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots: Theoretical and Computational Physics (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Γ-valley conduction-band lineup of two adjacent stages based on the QCP2 design of Table 2, and squared envelope functions of the relevant bound states (referenced to their respective energy levels). The electric field F = 22 kV/cm across the structure corresponds to the operating point of maximum extracted power (as determined from Fig. 4 below). The processes of photon absorption and photocarrier collection are illustrated by the vertical and diagonal arrows, respectively. The shaded areas indicate the chirped superlattice minibands designed to provide the upper states of the absorptive transitions and to facilitate the initial collection of the photoexcited electrons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Emission spectrum of a blackbody source at 1300 K. (b)-(e) Dimensionless absorption spectra of the four QCP structures of Table 2, computed at their respective operating points of maximum extracted power (as determined from Fig. 4 below).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of the bound states of two adjacent QCP stages in the presence of photovoltage V. The two sets labeled A and B comprise states that are highly connected to one another by electron/electron and electron/LO-phonon scattering. The quasi-Fermi levels of these two cascades ( E F A and E F B ) are also indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Total current density Jtot Jp Jd versus photovoltage V for each QCP structure of Table 2, in the presence of thermal radiation from a blackbody source at 1300 K. The symbol on each trace indicates the operating point where the electrical power density JtotV produced by the corresponding structure is maximum. (b) Output power density JtotV versus photovoltage for the same QCP structures of (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total current density Jtot Jp Jd versus combined photovoltage Vtot for the multiple-junction device comprising the four QCP structures of Table 2 connected in series (dashed line), and corresponding output power density P = JtotVtot versus photovoltage Vtot (solid line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the material parameters used in all simulations presented in this work.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Layer thicknesses and doping densities of the four QCP structures considered in this work.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 2 D ( ω ) = i A j B q 2 z i j 2 ω n c ε 0 Γ i j / 2 ( E j E i ω ) 2 + ( Γ i j / 2 ) 2 ( N i N j ) .
J p = q B W d ε 2 π h 3 c 2 ε 2 exp ( ε / k B T r a d ) 1 ,
J d = J 0 ( e q V / k B T 1 ) ,
J 0 = i A j B q m π 2 E i d ε { R i j a b s ( ε ) n 0 f i ( ε ) [ 1 f j ( ε + ω L O ) ] + + R i j e m i s s ( ε ) ( n 0 + 1 ) f i ( ε ) [ 1 f j ( ε ω L O ) ] } .

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