Abstract

We report on the improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN using a pyramidal-shaped SiO2 mask. The light output power was increased by 80% at 20 mA of injection current compared with that of conventional LEDs without LEO structures. This improvement is attributed to an increased internal quantum efficiency by a significant reduction in threading dislocation and by an enhancement of light extraction efficiency by pyramidal-shaped SiO2 LEO mask.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. E. F. Schubert, Light-emitting diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2003).
  2. J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274(1-3), 24–32 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 70–74 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, J. P. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced Light Extraction From Triangular GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1865–1867 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. W. Ng, K. M. Lau, Z. P. Yang, S. P. Chang, and S. Y. Lin, “Study of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Chemical Wet-Etching-Patterned Sapphire Substrate With V-Shaped Pits Roughening Surfaces,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1455–1463 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-11-6670 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. W. Ng, K. M. Lau, Z. P. Yang, S. P. Chang, and S. Y. Lin, “Study of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Chemical Wet-Etching-Patterned Sapphire Substrate With V-Shaped Pits Roughening Surfaces,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1455–1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, J. P. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced Light Extraction From Triangular GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1865–1867 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 70–74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-11-6670 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274(1-3), 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelor, D.

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bremser, M.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, E.

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. P.

Chi, G. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W. T.

Chuo, C. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Datta, R.

M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 70–74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R.

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. F.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erchak, A. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. M.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I.

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K. F.

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gehrke, T.

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 70–74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imada, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. K.

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joannoupoulos, J. D.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 70–74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. H.

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. P.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, J. P. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced Light Extraction From Triangular GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1865–1867 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, J. P. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced Light Extraction From Triangular GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1865–1867 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Kwon, M. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, J. P. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced Light Extraction From Triangular GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1865–1867 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. M.

Lee, B. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. P.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. N.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. J.

Li, J.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

Lin, W. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Linthicum, K.

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Meier, C.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. W.

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohuchi, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, H.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, R. A.

M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 70–74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. M.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, E. H.

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

E. H. Park, J. Jang, S. Gupta, I. Ferguson, C. H. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Park, “Air-voids embedded high efficiency InGaN-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, J. P. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced Light Extraction From Triangular GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1865–1867 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rajagopal, P.

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rayment, F. D. G.

M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 70–74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannoupoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, S. J.

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274(1-3), 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J. H.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shih, W. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T.

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274(1-3), 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Tadatomo, K.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D.

K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, and R. Davis, “Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. E.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekawa, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High Output Power InGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on Patterned Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tu, R. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, M. E.

M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 70–74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

A. Chakraborty, S. Keller, C. Meier, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, P. Waltereit, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Properties of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Wang, T. C.

R. C. Tu, C. C. Chuo, S. M. Pan, Y. M. Fan, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. J. Tun, G. C. Chi, B. C. Lee, and C. P. Lee, “Improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by inserting an in situ rough SiNx interlayer in n-GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, F.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. P.

Zeng, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheleva, T. S.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional SEM image of pyramidal-shaped SiO2 mask. The inset is a top-view SEM mage. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image of GaN film overgrown on the SiO2 mask.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM images of GaN template (a) without SiO2 mask, (b) with square-shaped SiO2 mask, and (c) with pyramidal-shaped SiO2 mask. The scan area is 5 × 5 μm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Room temperature PL spectra and (b) temperature-dependent integrated PL intensity of MQWs grown on n-GaN with pyramidal-shaped SiO2 mask (PSLEO), square-shaped SiO2 mask (LEO) and without SiO2 mask.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)-(d) Monte-Carlo ray-tracing result of the LEO-LED and PSLEO-LED. (e) Light extraction efficiency (ηextraction ) and enhancement ratio of each face (top, bottom and side wall) of PSLEO-LED and LEO-LED.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light output power as a function of injection current for the PSLEO-LED, LEO-LED, and nonLEO-LED.

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